Bài tập Tiếng Anh 12 - Unit 1: Life stories

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  1. Unit 1. LIFE STORIES PART 1: VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR REVIEW A. VOCABULARY • talented /'tỉlənɪd/ (adj.): cĩ tài năng, cĩ khiếu. Ex: The kids at this school are all exceptionally talented in some way. • accomplished /ə'kɒmplɪʃt/ (adj.) (+ at/in): cĩ đầy đủ tài năng, hồn hảo, được giáo dục. Ex: He came to New York in 1976, already accomplished in English. • pioneer /ˌpaɪə'nɪə(r)/ (n.): người tiên phong, người đi đầu • be widely/ internationally recognized: được cơng nhận rộng rãi, được thế giới cơng nhận. • dedication /ˌdɛdɪ'keɪʃən/ (n.) (+ to): sự cống hiến Ex: There was no doubting Luke's dedication to the campaign. • be dedicated to V-ing/ noun phrase: tận tụy, tận tâm • respectable /rɪs'pɛktəbl/ (adj.): đáng kính trọng, đúng đắn • respectful /ris'pektful/ (adj): lễ phép, bày tỏ sự kính trọng, tơn kính (mơ tả hành động, sự việc) • distinguished /dɪs'tɪŋgwɪʃt/ (adj.): ưu tú, xuất sắc, lỗi lạc • generosity /ˌdʒɛnə'rɒsɪti/ (n.): sự hào phĩng • inspiration /ˌɪnspə'reɪʃən/ (n.): sự truyền cảm hứng, cảm hứng • strategist /'strỉtɪdʒɪst/ (n): nhà chiến lược • popularity /ˌpɒpjʊ'lỉrɪti/ (n.): sự nổi tiếng, tính phổ biến • influential /ˌɪnflʊ'ɛnʃəl/ (adj.): cĩ ảnh hưởng, cĩ thế lực • recognition /ˌrɛkəg'nɪʃən/ (n.): sự cơng nhận, sự được cơng nhận, thừa nhận • to win/ receive/ meet with recognition from the public: được mọi người thừa nhận • achievement /ə'tʃi:vmənt/ (n.): thành tựu, sự giành được, sự hồn thành • controversial /ˌkɒntrə'vɜ:ʃəl/ (adj.): gây tranh cãi • racial segregation /'reɪʃəl ˌsɛgrɪ' geɪʃən/: sự phân biệt chủng tộc • reach one's full potential: đạt được tiềm năng tối đa • a stroke of luck: một dịp may bất ngờ • reputation /ˌrɛpju(:)'teɪʃən/ (n.): danh tiếng, tiếng tăm • figure /'fɪgə/ (n.): nhân vật, biểu tượng • resort to (v.): dùng đến • take something/ somebody for granted: coi ai/ cái gì là hiển nhiên, sẵn cĩ • at the expense of: phải trả giá bằng
  2. • be committed to: tận tụy, bị giam giữ • be devoted to: tận tâm, cống hiến cho • distinctive /dɪs'tɪŋktɪv/ (adj.): đặc biệt, xuất sắc • epitome /ɪ'pɪtəmi/ (n.): tấm gương hồn hảo, hình mẫu hồn hảo • representative /ˌrɛprɪ'zɛntətɪv/ (n.): đại diện, hình mẫu • celebrated /'sɛlɪbreɪtɪd/ (adj.): nổi tiếng, trứ danh, lừng danh • exceptional /ɪk'sɛpʃənl/ (adj): khác thường, đặc biệt, ngoại lệ, hiếm cĩ • extraordinary /ɪks'trɔ:dnri/ (adj): lạ thường, đặc biệt • remarkable /rɪ'mɑ:kəb1/ (adj.): xuất sắc, đặc biệt, đáng chú ý • spectacular /spɛk'tỉkjʊlə/ (adj.): đẹp mắt, ngoạn mục, thu hút sự chú ý • profound /prə'faʊnd/ (adj.): phức tạp, sâu sắc B. GRAMMAR REVIEW I. A/AN/THE • A/an/the là những từ hết sức quen thuộc trong tiếng Anh, chúng được gọi là mạo từ. Cĩ 2 loại mạo từ: mạo từ khơng xác định và mạo từ xác định. 1. Cách dùng mạo từ khơng xác định “a” và “an”. • Dùng “a” hoặc “an” trước một danh từ số ít đếm được. Chúng cĩ nghĩa là một. Chúng được dùng trong câu cĩ tính khái quát hoặc đề cập đến một chủ thể chưa được đề cập từ trước. Ex: - A ball is round (nghĩa chung, khái quát, chỉ tất cả các quả bĩng): Quả bĩng hình trịn. - He has seen a girl (chúng ta khơng biết cơ gái nào, chưa được đề cập trước đĩ): Anh ấy vừa mới gặp một cơ gái. a. Dùng "an” trước: - Quán từ "an" được dùng trước các từ bắt đầu bằng nguyên âm (trong cách phát âm, chứ khơng phải trong cách viết). Bao gồm: - Các từ bắt đầu bằng các nguyên âm “a, e, i, o”. Ví dụ: an apple (một quả táo), an orange (một quả cam). - Một số từ bắt đầu bằng “u”: Ví dụ: an umbrella (một cái ơ) - Một số từ bắt đầu bằng “h” câm: Ví dụ: an hour (một tiếng) - Các từ mở đầu bằng một chữ viết tắt: an S.O.S/ an M.P b. Dùng "a" trước: - Dùng “a” trước các từ bắt đầu bằng một phụ âm. Chúng bao gồm các chữ cái cịn lại và một số trường hợp bắt đầu bằng "u, y, h". Ex: A house (một ngơi nhà), a year (một năm), a uniform (một bộ đồng phục)
  3. - Đứng trước một danh từ mở đầu bằng "uni " và "eu" phải dùng "a": Ví dụ: a university (trường đại học), a union (tổ chức), a culogy (lời ca ngợi). - Dùng trong các thành ngữ chỉ số lượng nhất định như: a lot of/ a great deal of/ a couple/ a dozen. Ex: I want to buy a dozen eggs. (Tơi muốn mua 1 tả trứng.) - Dùng trước những số đếm nhất định thường là hàng ngàn, hàng trăm như: a/ one hundred - a/ one thousand. Ex: My school has a thousand students. (Trường của tơi cĩ một nghìn học sinh.) - Dùng trước “half” (một nửa) khi nĩ theo sau một đơn vị nguyên vẹn: a kilo hay a half, hay khi nĩ đi ghép với một danh từ khác để chỉ nửa phần (khi viết cĩ dấu gạch nối): a half - share, a half - holiday (ngày lễ chỉ nghỉ nửa ngày). Ex: My mother bought a half kilo of apples. (Mẹ tơi mua nửa cân táo.) - Dùng với các đơn vị phân số như : 1/3 ( a/ one third), 1/5 (a/ one fifth), 1/4 (a quarter) Ex: I get up at a quarter past six. (Tơi thức dậy lúc 6 giờ 15 phút.) - Dùng trong các thành ngữ chỉ giá cả, tốc độ, tỉ lệ: a dollar, a kilometer, an hour, 4 times a day Ex: John goes to work four times a week. (John đi làm 4 lần 1 tuần.) 2. Cách dùng mạo từ xác định “the” • Dùng “the” trước một danh từ đã được xác định cụ thể về mặt tính chất, đặc điểm, vị trí hoặc đã được đề cập đến trước đĩ, hoặc những khái niệm phổ thơng, ai cũng biết. Ex: - The man next to Lin is my friend. (Trong câu này cả người nĩi và người nghe đều biết đĩ là người đàn ơng nào). Người đàn ơng bên cạnh Lin là bạn của tơi. - The sun is big. (Mặt trời chỉ cĩ một). Mặt trời rất lớn. • Với danh từ khơng đếm được, dùng “the” nếu nĩi đến một vật cụ thể, khơng dùng “the” nếu nĩi chung. Ex: - Chili is very hot. (Chỉ các loại ớt nĩi chung). Ớt rất cay. - The chili on the table has been bought. (Cụ thể là ớt ở trên bàn) Ớt ở trên bàn vừa mới được mua. • Với danh từ đếm được số nhiều, khi chúng cĩ nghĩa đại diện chung cho một lớp các vật cùng loại thì cũng khơng dùng "the". Ex: Students should do homework before going to school. (Học sinh nĩi chung) Học sinh nên làm bài tập về nhà trước khi đến trường. II. REVIEW THE SIMPLE PAST & PAST CONTINUOUS. 1. Simple past (Quá khứ đơn) a. Với động từ "to be":
  4. (+) S + was/ were + O (-) S + wasn't/ weren't + O (?) Was/ were (not) + S + O? b. Với động từ “to do”: (+) S + Ved + O (-) S + didn't + V + O (?) Did (not) + S + V + O? Uses (Cách sử dụng) • Điều tra hành động đã xảy ra và chấm dứt hồn tồn trong quá khứ. Ex: - I saw a movie yesterday. - Last year, I traveled to Japan. • Diễn tà một chuỗi các hành động liên tiếp xảy ra trong quá khứ. Ex: - I finished work, walked to the beach and found a nice place to swim. - Did you add flour, pour the milk and then add the eggs? c. Adverds (Trạng ngữ nhận biết) • Yesterday, ago, upon a time, in 1945 (in a specific year in the past ), last d. Một số lưu ý đối với thi quá khứ đơn: • Quy tắc thêm “ed” với động từ thường: Hầu hết động từ được thêm "ed" để biến thành động từ dạng quá khứ. Ex: work - worked, visit - visited • Một vài động từ kết thúc bằng phụ âm "y" thì biến "y" thành "i" rồi thêm "ed" để biến thành dạng động từ quá khứ. Ex: study - studied, carry - carried • Một vài động từ cĩ dạng 1:1:1 (1 phụ âm + 1 nguyên âm + 1 phụ âm) thì ta gấp đơi phụ âm cuối rồi thêm "ed". Ex: plan - planned, fit - fitted * Cách phát âm đối với động từ cĩ đuơi “ed”: Đúng nhất: Theo phiên âm quốc tế, khi -ED đứng sau các âm sau sẽ được phát âm như sau: Phát âm của -ED Các âm trước -ED /ɪd/ /t/ /d/ /t/ /k/ /f/ /p/ /ʃ/ /tʃ/ /s/ /t/ /θ/ /d/ Các nguyên âm và phụ âm cịn lại
  5. Mẹo vặt: (Khơng đúng 100%): Theo hình vị tự: Phát âm của -ED Các âm trước -ED /ɪd/ t d /t/ P x ce f ch sh *gh s *th ph k /d/ Các nguyên âm và phụ âm cịn lại Ex: /ɪd/ wanted, needed, demanded, suggested, mended, hated, visited, /t/ walked, liked, stopped, raped, washed, watched, laughed, sentenced, rated, breathed, stated, looked, cooked, sniffed, missed, mixed /d/ played, studied, changed, matched, decreed, Note: • Khi *th phát âm là /θ/ thì -ed mới phát âm là /t/ như breathed, • Khi *th phát âm là /ð/ thì -ed cĩ phát âm là /d/ như bathed, • Khi *gh phát âm là /f/ thi -ed phát âm là /t/ như laughed, coughed, • Khi *gh là âm câm thi -ed phát âm là /d/ như ploughed, • Nguyên âm + S + ED thì -ed thường được phát âm là /d/ như praised, chased, raised Ngoại lệ: - Một số tỉnh từ sau cĩ cách phát âm của -ed là /ɪd/: naked /'neɪkɪd/, learned /'lə:nɪd/, aged /eɪdʒɪd/, beloved /bɪ'lʌvɪd/, blessed /'blesɪd/, crooked /'krʊkɪd/, ragged /'rỉɡɪd/, sacred /'seɪkrɪd/, wretched /'retʃɪd/, - Phần ngoại lệ: Cĩ một chữ cĩ -ed tận cùng được phát âm là /əd/. Chữ đĩ là hundred /'hʌndrəd/ 2. Past continuous (Quá khứ tiếp diễn) a. Form (+) S + was/ were + V-ing +O (-) S + wasn't/ weren't + V-ing + O (?) Was/ were (not) + S + V-ing + O? b. Uses (Cách sử dụng) • Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra tại 1 thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ. Ex: I was sleeping at 12 o'clock last night. • Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra thì một hành động khác xen vào hành động đang xảy ra dùng QKTD; hành động xen vào dùng QKĐ. Ex: I was studying when he came in. • Diễn tả nhiều hành động xảy ra đồng thời trong quá khứ (đi với while).
  6. Ex: Yesterday evening, my mother was cooking while my father was reading books. c. Advs (Trạng ngữ nhận biết) At (specific time) From to last night yesterday, one year ago At this/ that time At the moment Past simple While/ When Past continuous Past continuous d. Những động từ khơng chia ở các thì tiếp diễn: Một số động từ chỉ cảm xúc (like, love ) hay (know, believe, want) khơng được chia các thì tiếp diễn (kể cả hiện tại tiếp diễn hay quá khứ tiếp diễn). Verbs of thinking believe, doubt, guess, imagine, know, realize, suppose, understand. Verbs of the senses hear, smell, sound, taste. Verbs of possession belong to have (meaning possess), own, possess. Verbs of emotion dislike, hate, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish. Verbs of appearance appear, seem. Others contain, depend on, include, involve, mean, measure, weigh, require. Ex: Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Jane was at my house when you arrived. PART 2: PRACTICE A. PHONETICS I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined. 1. A. accident B. jazz C. stamps D. watch 2. A. this B. thick C. maths D. thin 3. A gas B. gain C. germ D. goods 4. A. bought B. nought C. plough D. thought 5. A. spear B. gear C. fear D. pear II. Choose the word which has a different stress pattern from the others. 1. A. remember B. influence C. expression D. convenient 2. A. medium B. computer C. formation D. connection 3. A. national B. cultural C. popular D. musician 4. A. successful B. humorous C. arrangement D. attractive
  7. 5. A. construction B. typical C. glorious D. purposeful B. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR I. Choose the correct words in the box to complete the sentences. widely related master inequality movement accomplished pioneer increasingly 1. Hughes is one of the most ___ writers in American 20 literary history? 2. Albert Einstein was essentially all ___ to science meanwhile Leonardo Da Vinci was a ___ at art, architecture, invention, and several other areas. 3. Han Mac Tu was part of the new poetic ___ in Vietnam at the beginning of the 20th century. 4. Han Mac Tu is considered a ___ of romantic poetry in Vietnam. 5. During his time at University, Nelson Mandela became ___ aware of the racial ___ and injustice faced by non-white people. 6. Steve Jobs is ___ recognized as a pioneer in the field of microcomputer revolution. II. Give the correct form of the words in the following sentences. 1. He was the most ___ football player that our school had produced in years His talent for football was great. TALENT 2. Do you know Professor Phan Huy Le whose great ___ was his books on the history of Vietnam in the 19th century? ACHIEVE 3. He wishes to straighten up and lead a ___ life. RESPECT 4. His career as a journalist was full of ___ achievements. He was a respected and admired journalist. DISTINGUISH 5. To be successful takes hard work and ___. DEDICATE 6. Doing things with ___ will give us true happiness. The more we give away, the happier we are. GENEROUS 7. Tran Hung Dao was a great ___ to lure the enemy to enter deeply into his land, then attacked to destroy them. STRATEGY 8. Mother Teresa was a living saint who offered a great example and ___ to the world. INSPIRE 9. Zuckerberg was forced to shut his website down, but its immense ___ and controversy had made him consider its future potential. POPULAR 10. As the principal founder of Microsoft, Bill Gates is one of the most ___ and richest people on the planet. INFLUENCE
  8. 11. If Presley was considered a ___ and a rebellious figure, it just made him more popular with young listeners. CONTROVERSY 12. Stephen William Hawking got more ___ for his research and discoveries through his print and TV interviews. RECOGNINZE III. Indicate the correct answer to complete each of the following questions. 1. At his first school, Mark Zuckerberg ___ in all subjects and worked hard throughout his classes. A. interested B. excelled C. engrossed D. involved 2. His incredible performance during high school ___ him admission to Harvard University. A. earned B. attained C. resorted D. applied 3. Mother Teresa suffered various health problems, but nothing could ___ her from fulfilling her mission of serving the poor and needy. A. persuade B. warn C. appoint D. dissuade 4. In 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for work undertaken in the ___ to overcome poverty and distress. A. battle B. struggle C. movement D. proposal 5. At the age of 18, Mother Teresa was ___ permission to join a group of nuns in Ireland. A. required B. sought C. obtained D. given 6. Nelson Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for his work in helping to end racial ___ in South Africa A. integration B. segregation C. achievement D. exploitation 7. Princess Diana fought for her children on any level so they could reach their full ___ as human beings and in their public duties. A. requirement B. condition C. capacity D. potential 8. Meeting my favorite celebrity at the airport was certainly a ___ of luck that wouldn't have happened if I'd arrived five minutes later. A. number B. piece C. stroke D. name 9. Steve Jobs might hardly imagine that only a year later the company ___ impressive victory with Apple II, one of the first highly successful ___ personal computer. A. attain / massly-produced B. see / mass-produced C. taste / massive produced D. achieve / mass-producing 10. Ms. May, 59 years old, is the country's longest-serving home secretary in half a century, with a ___ for seriousness, hard work and above all, determination. A. fame B. reputation C. achievement D. maintenance
  9. 11. Theresa May is one of a growing number of women in traditionally ___ British politics rising to the upper position of leadership. A. male-dominated B. man-domination C. male-dominating D. man-dominatedly 12. Marilyn Monroe is widely ___ as one of most influential figures in American culture. A. classified B. depicted C. admired D. regarded 13. May's sports hero was Geoffrey Boycott, a solid, stubborn cricketer who ___ in playing the long game. A. qualified B. specialized C. engrossed D. indulged 14. Like many other Britain's prime ministers, May ___ a place at Oxford. A. admitted B. permitted C. won D. constituted 15. She has been quite critical ___ the media focusing on her fashion instead of her achievement as a politician. A. with B. for C. of D. in 16. Marilyn Monroe was ___ for Golden Globe Best Actress Award for Bus Stop (1956). A. offered B. nominated C. awarded D. rewarded 17. Marilyn Monroe ___ to a heavy drug use, which had a damaging impact ___ both her mental and physical health. A. resorted - on B. abused - in C. overexploited - to D. related - for 18. Their family were wealthy but they encouraged their children to work hard and take nothing ___. A. for sure B. for good C. for granted D. for charge 19. When Bill Gates saw an opportunity to found his own company, he dropped ___ Harvard without finishing his course. A. into B. by C. around D. out of 20. Despite the pervasive press intrusions into her private life, Princess Diana remained very popular because people could identify ___ her. A. in B. for C. with D. as 21. Elvis was ___ shy and as a youngster was not keen on performing in public. A. relatively B. respectively C. virtually D. almost 22. As a teenager, he was uninterested in school - but became ___ in music, listening to a huge ___ of contemporary American music. A. bored - amount B. reluctant - diversity C. reckless - type D. absorbed - range 23. Elvis Presley was ___ for the idea that rock 'n' roll music was having a negative effect on American teenagers. A. accused B. convicted C. criticized D. charged
  10. 24. If Presley was considered a controversial and a rebellious ___, it just made him more popular with young listeners. A. creator B. figure C. character D. celebration 25. Darwin was ___ a place on the HMS Beagle to act as a natural scientist on a voyage to the coast of South America. A. won B. gained C. offered D. admitted 26. Influenced by the work of Malthus, Darwin came ___ a theory of natural selection and gradual evolution over time. A. off B. into C. out D. up with 27. In the struggle for survival, the fittest win out at the ___ of their rivals because they succeed in adapting themselves best ___ their environment A. expense - to B. cost - for C. expenditure - of D. stake - to 28. Van Gogh played a ___ role in the development of modern art. A. worthless B. valueless C. key D. minor 29. Van Gogh was ___ to a lunatic asylum where he would spend time on and off until his death in 1890. A. related B. referred C. adapted D. committed 30. Oprah Winfrey has played a key role in modern American life, shaping cultural ___ and promoting various liberal causes. A. values B. trends C. potentials D. prosperity IV. Indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 1. His early death only cemented his legendary status, and Elvis Presley has become deeply ingrained in popular culture. A. engrossed B. indulged C. deep-rooted D. supreme 2. A distinctive feature of Trump's business and real estate ventures has been the prominent use of his own name. A. characteristic B. general C. common D. superficial 3. Mother Teresa was a Roman Catholic nun who devoted her life to serving the poor and destitute around the world. A. committed B. dedicated C. committed D. attended 4. Marilyn Monroe has become an iconic representative of fame and female beauty. A. figure B. image C. typical D. idol 5. Marilyn Monroe was an epitome of sensuality, beauty and effervescence and was naturally photogenic.
  11. A. frame B. indicator C. instructor D. figure 6. Despite the media often being dismissive of Monroe's potential, her efforts to improve acting paid off. A. failed B. broke down C. managed D. met with success 7. Margaret Thatcher was known for her tough uncompromising conservative political views, and became dubbed as ‘The Iron Lady’. A. reserved B. inflexible C. narrow-minded D. compatible 8. He is commonly referred to as the "The King of Rock 'n' Roll" and epitomizes the post-war pop generation A. be representative of B. leads C. elaborates D. expands on 9. Leonardo da Vinci created rare masterpieces of art such as The Mona Lisa' and ‘The Last Supper’. A. worthless works of art B. invaluable property C. excellent qualifications D. excellent works of art 10. Da Vinci studied all aspects of life and his far-reaching investigations and discoveries sought to show an underlying unity of the universe. A. insignificant B. finite C. extensive D. excessive V. Indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 1. Da Vinci from an early age began to display his remarkable academic and artistic talents. A. striking B. extraordinary C. run-of-the-mill D. exceptional 2. Joachim Lafosse confirms his exceptional talent with "Free Student", a film that is more conventional in its form. A. out of the ordinary B. abnormal C. usual D. odd 3. Van Gogh became one of the most celebrated artists of the twentieth century. A. admired B. honored C. acclaimed D. obscure 4. Michael stood out for his exceptional enthusiasm and soft, infectious musical voice. A. attract attention B. be inconspicuous C. be conspicuous D. stick out a mile 5. In recent years, Madonna has continued to tour, release albums and engage in humanitarian work. A. throw oneself into B. become uninvolved in C. have a hand in D. take part in 6. Henry VIII was equally notorious for his six marriages and several scandalous love affairs. A. anonymous B. infamous C. celebrated D. ill-famed 7. The works Da Vinci did finish were often spectacular masterpieces, such as his paintings The Last Supper and The Mona Lisa. A. magnificent B. out of this world C. unimpressive D. remarkable
  12. 8. The death of Diana princess had a profound impact on the British public and those in other countries. A. far-reaching B. superficial C. deep-seated D. heartfelt VI. Put the verb in the past simple tense or the past continuous. 1. When I (arrive) ___ at this house, he still (sleep) ___. 2. The light (go) ___ out while we (have) ___ dinner. 3. Bill (have) ___ breakfast when I (stop) ___ at this house this morning. 4. She (wash) ___ up when Tam (arrive) ___ at this house. 5. As we (cross) ___ the Street, we (see) ___ an accident. 6. Tom (see) ___ a serious accident while he (stand) ___ at the bus stop. 7. The children (play) ___ football when their mother (come) ___ back home. 8. The bell (ring) ___ while Tom (take) ___ a bath. 9. He (sit) ___ in a car when I (see) ___ him. 10. We (clean) ___ the house when she (come) ___ yesterday. VII. Add "A/ AN/ THE/ X" to each of the following sentences. 1. He made his first attempt to engage in sporting activities four years ago with ___ support of his family. 2. He was ___ most talented football player that our school had produced in years. His talent for ___ football was great. 3. He did ___ Black Mountain hike with his friends, but had to check his blood glucose levels every four hours. 4. Do you know Professor Phan Huy Le whose great achievement was his books on ___ history of Viet Nam in ___ 19th century? 5. ___ following year, he took part in Melbourne Sunset run to raise funds for ___ orphanage. 6. He wishes to straighten up and lead ___ respectable life. He would like to be socially acceptable due to his good behavior. 7. He had to brake hard to avoid hitting ___ truck in front.
  13. 8. Doing things with generosity will give us ___ true happiness. ___ more we give away, ___ happier we are. 9. His career as ___ journalist was full of distinguished achievements. He was ___ respected and admired journalist. 10. Five years ago, when Edward was 35 years old, he was diagnosed with ___ diabetes. VIII. Choose the best answer A, B, C or D to complete the sentences. 1. She has read ___ interesting book. A. a B. an C. the D. X 2. You'll get ___ shock if you touch ___ live wire with that screwdriver. A. an/ the B. x/ the C. a/ a D. an/ the 3. Mr. Smith is ___ old customer and ___ honest man. A. An/ the B. the/ an C. an/ an D. the/ the 4. I first met her four years ago when we ___ at a middle school. A. had been studying B. are studying C. have been studying D. were studying 5. This school has an excellent ___ in the community. A. image B. reputation C. name D. opinion 6. ___ youngest boy has just started going to ___ school. A. a/ x B. x/ the C. an/ x D. the/ x 7. Do you go to ___ prison to visit him? A. the B. a C. x D. an 8. The boys broke a window when they ___ football. A. played B. were playing C. half played D. are playing 9. In spite of having a peasant ___, Nguyen Hue had proved that he was really an excellent general, only gained victories. A. situation B. experience C. condition D. background 10. As well as being a successful actor, Clint Eastwood is a ___ film director. A. talent B. talented C. distinguish D. respectful 11. I ___ about him when suddenly he came in. A. talk B. talked C. am talking D. was talking 12. At first, Microsoft had ___ hyphen in the name "Micro-soft", ___ combination of microcomputer and ___ software. A. a - the - a B. a - a - X C. the - the - X D. X - a - the 13. Le Loi used the ___ war, moving from little to large scale.
  14. A. mid-term B. short-term C. long-term D. half term 14. Last night at this time, they ___ the same thing. She ___ and he ___ the newspaper. A. are doing/ is cooking/ is reading B. were doing/ was cooking/ was reading C. was doing/ has cooked/ is reading D. had done/ was cooking/ read 15. When Carol ___ last night, I ___ my favorite show on television. A. was calling/ watched C. called/ was watching B. called/ have watched D. had called/ watched IX. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that needs correction. 1. The shortage of cooking gas in North Korea raised prices: an example of how the law of supply and demand also apply to planned economies. A. The shortage of B. raised C. an example of D. apply 2. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, physical techniques making it possible to determine the chemical constitution of stars. A. latter half B. making it C. to determine D. of stars 3. In 1997, molecular biologist L. Mark Lagrimini of Ohio State University cloned the gene in that codes for a type of peroxidase found in tobacco plants. A. In B. in that C. a type of D. found 4. Alpine Sainte nards are too good at following the scent of humans, even in snow, that they are used by ski patrols as rescue dogs. A. too B. following C. used D. as 5. Booker T. Washington, head of the first industrial school for African Americans, was as popular with Southerners than he was with Northerners. A. first industrial B. was C. popular with D. than he X. Indicate the correct response to each of the following exchanges. 1. "How do you like your steak done?" – “___.” A. I don't like it B. Very little C. Well done D. Very much 2. "Oops! I'm sorry for stepping on your foot" – “___.” A. Never mind B. You don't mind C. You're welcome D. That's fine 3. Anne: "Fancy a bite to eat?" - Barbara: “___” A. No thanks, I've just had some. B. No thanks, I've just had something. C. No thanks, I'm not neatly very thirsty. D. No thanks, I'm trying to give up. 4. Receptionist: "Good morning." - Chris: "Good morning. I've come to ___ Mrs. Dabria." A. see B. visit C. do business with D. hold a talk with
  15. 5. Arm and Mary are studying in their classroom. Ann: "Can I borrow your dictionary?" – Mary: “___” A. I'm afraid I can't B. Here you are! C. I think so. D. It doesn't matter. 6. Jack and Joe are discussing how to make salad for dinner. Jack: “___” - Joe: “How about putting some grapes in it, instead?” A. We could fry some onions with it too. B. I'd rather just have some bread, thanks. C. Let's put some pieces of apple in the salad. D. Good idea! I'll go and make one. 7. - Would you mind lending me you bike?" – “___.” A. Yes. Here it is B. Not at all C. Great D. Yes, let's 8. Havy: "Thanks for your help, Judy." - Judy: “___.” A. With all my heart B. Never remind me C. It's my pleasure D. Wish you C. READING I. Choose the word or phrase from the box that best fits the blank space in the following passage. milestones prolific like won funded breakthroughs making revolutionary Elon Musk is one of the greatest and most (1) ___ modern inventors and is responsible for monumental advancements in futuristic technology (2) ___ renewable energy and space travel. Many of his innovations seem to be right out of a science-fiction movie, but throughout his career he has brought about huge scientific (3) ___. After (4) ___ his first fortune from the internet payment service 'PayPal', he invested $100 million in his space travel company, 'SpaceX' and began building satellites, launch vehicles and other spacecraft both for NASA and for his own company, creating new (5) ___ with his privately (6) ___ spacecraft. Many of his (7) ___ ideas and inventions focus on space travel, renewable energy, commercial electric cars and other technologies, that look to a future where fossil fuels and other resources may be in shorter supply. His futuristic and visionary ideas have (8) ___ him both scientific and philanthropic recognition and awards. II. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that best fits the blank space in the following passage. Gia Long was the first emperor of the Nguyen dynasty as well as the (1) ___ father of the modern nation of Vietnam. Born as Nguyen Phuc Anh, he was the nephew of the last Nguyen lord who ruled over southern Vietnam. (2) ___ being born into a royal family, he had to (3) ___ many difficulties in his early life as he became the (4) ___ of rival groups who attempted to (5) ___ the Nguyen clan completely. After the deaths of his father and uncle at the hands of the rival leaders, Nguyen Phuc Anh fled to the southern
  16. coastal tip of Vietnam where (6) ___ he met a French priest, Pigneau de Behaine, who would (7) ___ become his trusted adviser and play a major role in his (8) ___ to power. He escaped with the help of the priest and later on sought aid from the French in his struggle (9) ___ his rivals. (10) ___ the help of the French, and equipped with (11) ___ European armaments, he was (12) ___ in securing victories over his rivals. 1. A. found B. founded C. founding D. founder 2. A. Because of B. In view of C. Despite of D. In spite of 3. A. encounter B. face up C. manage D. get by 4. A. shield B. target C. purpose D. destination 5. A. wipe off B. wipe out C. kill up D. destroy 6. A. by chance B. on occasion C. on purpose D. at stake 7. A. at last B. especially C. specially D. eventually 8. A. raise B. arise C. rise D. rising 9. A. for B. against C. off D. at 10. A. With B. Without C. But for D. Thanks 11. A. advance B. advances C. advanced D. advancing 12. A. engaged B. involved C. successful D. attended III. Read the passage, and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for each question. William Sydney Porter (1862-1910), who wrote under the pseudonym of O. Henry, was born in North Carolina. His only formal education was to attend his Aunt Lina's school until the age of fifteen, where he developed his lifelong love of books. By 1881 he was a licensed pharmacist. However, within a year, on the recommendation of a medical colleague of his Father's, Porter moved to La Salle County in Texas for two years herding sheep. During this time, Webster's Unabridged Dictionary was his constant companion, and Porter gained a knowledge of ranch life that he later incorporated into many of his short stories. He then moved to Austin for three years, and during this time the first recorded use of his pseudonym appeared, allegedly derived from his habit of calling "Oh, Henry' to a family cat. In 1887, Porter man Athol Estes. He worked as a draftsman, then as a bank teller for the First National Bank. In 1894 Porter founded his own humor weekly, the "Rolling Stone", a venture that failed within a year, and later wrote a column for the Houston Daily Post. In the meantime, the First National Bank was examined, and the subsequent indictment of 1886 stated that Porter had embezzled funds. Porter then fled to New Orleans, and later to Honduras, leaving his wife and child in Austin. He returned in 1897 because of his wife's continued ill-health, however she died six months later. Then, in 1898 Porter was found guilty and sentenced to five years imprisonment in Ohio. At the age of thirty five, he entered prison as a defeated man; he had lost his job, his home, his wife, and finally his freedom. He emerged from prison three years later,
  17. reborn as O. Henry, the pseudonym he now used to hide his true identity. He wrote at least twelve stories in jail, and after re-gaining his freedom, went to New York City, where he published more than 300 stories and gained fame as America's favorite short Story writer. Porter married again in 1907, but after months of poor health, he died in New York City at the age of forty-eight in 1910. O. Henry's stories have been translated all over the world. 1. According to the passage, Porter's Father was ___. A. the person who gave him a life-long love of books B. a medical doctor C. a licensed pharmacist D. responsible for his move to La Salle County in Texas 2. Why did the author write the passage? A. to outline the career of a famous American B. because of his fame as America's favorite short story writer C. because it is a tragic story of a gifted writer D. to outline the influences on O. Henry's writing 3. The word "imprisonment" in paragraph 2 is closet in meaning to ___. A. captivity B. escape C. insult D. punishment 4. What is the passage primarily about? A. The life and career of William Sydney Porter B. The way to adopt a nickname. C. O. Henry's influence on American literature. D. The adventures of O. Henry. 5. The author implies which of the following is true? A. Porter's wife might have lived longer if he had not left her in Austin when he fled. B. Porter was in poor health throughout his life. C. O. Henry is as popular in many other countries as he is in America D. Porter would probably have written less stories if he had not been in prison for three years. 6. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? A. Porter left school at 15 to become a pharmacist B. Porter wrote a column for the Houston Daily Post called "Rolling Stone". C. The first recorded use of his pseudonym was in Austin D. Both of Porter's wives died before he died 7. The word "pseudonym" in the passage refers to ___. A. William Sydney Porter B. O. Henry C. Athol Estes D. the Aunt Lina IV. Read the passage, and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for each question.
  18. A large number of inventions require years of arduous research and development before they are perfected. For instance, Thomas Edison had to make more than 1,000 attempts to invent the incandescent light bulb before he finally succeeded. History is replete with numerous other examples of people trying, yet failing to make inventions before they eventually succeeded. Yet some inventions have come about not through hard work but simply by accident in most cases, when someone unintentionally invented something, the inventor was attempting to create something else. For example, in the 1930s, chemist Roy Plunkett was attempting to make a new substance that could be used to refrigerate items. He mixed some chemicals together. Then, he put them into a pressurized container and cooled the mixture. By the time his experiment was complete, he had a new invention. It was not a new substance that could be used for refrigeration though. Instead, he had invented Teflon, which is today most commonly used to make nonstick pots and pans. Similarly, decades earlier, John Pemberton was a pharmacist in Atlanta, Georgia. He was attempting to create a tonic that people could use whenever they had headaches. While he was not successful in that endeavor, he managed to invent Coca-Cola, the world - famous carbonated soft drink. Scientists have also made crucial discoveries by accident when they were conducting experiments. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, an antibiotic in this manner. He discovered some mold growing in a dish with some bacteria. He noticed that the bacteria seemed to be avoiding the mold. When he investigated further, he determined some of the many useful properties of penicillin, which has saved millions of lives over the past few decades. Likewise, in 1946, scientist Percy Spencer was conducting an experiment with microwaves. He had a candy bar in his pocket, and he noticed that it suddenly melted. He investigated and learned the reason why that had happened. Soon afterward, he built a device that could utilize microwaves to heat food, the microwave oven. 1: Which title best summarizes the main idea of the passage ___. A. History's Most Important Inventions B. Accidental Inventions and Discoveries C. How to Become a Great Inventor D. You Don't Always Get What You Want 2: In paragraph 1, the word "arduous" is closest in meaning to ___. A. detailed B. tough C. specific D. constant 3: In paragraph 2, the word "endeavor" is closest in meaning to ___. A. research B. dream C. request D. attempt 4: What does the author say about Teflon? A. People first used it as a refrigeration device. B. It was created many years before Coca-Cola. C. The man who made it was a pharmacist. D. It is used for kitchenware nowadays. 5: Who was John Pemberton?
  19. A. The person who made Teflon B. The creator of Coca-Cola C. The man who discovered penicillin D. The inventor of the microwave 6: The author uses Alexander Fleming as an example of ___. A. one of the most famous inventors in history B. a person who made an accidental scientific discovery C. someone who became a millionaire from his invention D. a man who dedicated his life to medical science 7: What does the author imply about penicillin? A. Doctors seldom use it nowadays. B. Some people are not affected by it. C. It is an invaluable medical supply. D. Mold combines with bacteria to make it. D. WRITING I. Indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions. 1. Only with careful environmental planning can we protect the world in which we live. A. Careful environmental planning protects the world we live in. B. Planning the environment carefully, we can protect the world in which we live. C. Protecting the world we live in, we plan the environment carefully. D. We can protect the world we live in only with careful environmental planning. 2. You should take regular exercises instead of sitting in front of the television all day. A. Taking regular exercises is better than sitting in front of the television all day. B. Sitting in front of the television all day helps you take regular exercises. C. Sitting in front of the television all day and taking exercises are advisable. D. Don't take regular exercises, just sit in front of the television all day. 3. Wouldn't it be better to let them know about the alternations to the plan? A. Why haven't they have been informed about the new development? B. Shouldn't they have been consulted before the scheme was changed? C. Don't they think they should be informed about the changes in the plan? D. We'd better ask them to change the plan, hadn't we? 4. Don't take any notice of all his complaints about his health; there's nothing wrong with him. A. You can ignore all his talk of being ill; he's actually perfectly healthy. B. Try to avoid the subject of his health as I am tired of hearing all about his complaints. C. Don't listen to him talking about his health; it's his favorite subject. D. If you let him, he would talk only about his ill-health though actually he is quite healthy.
  20. 5. We had planned to walk right round the lake, but the heavy rain made this impossible. A. In spite of the heavy rain we managed to walk half way round the lake as planned. B. The heavy rain nearly prevented us from walking right round the lake. C. We would have walked right round the lake even if it had rained heavily. D. If it hadn't rained so heavily, we would have walked right round the lake. 6. There won't be peace in the conflict if both sides do not really desire it. A. It is only if both sides actually want the conflict to end peacefully that it will happen. B. As both sides in the conflict apparently desire peace, it is likely that there will be peace soon. C. The main problem in the conflict seems to be that neither side really desires peace. D. There has been a lot of fighting in the conflict because both sides seem to want it that way. 7. The accident happened as a result of the driver's not paying attention to the road. A. If the driver would have paid attention to the road, the accident hadn't happened. B. Had the driver been paid attention to the road, the accident wouldn't have happened. C. If the driver had been paying attention to the road, the accident wouldn't have happened. D. Had the accident not happened, the driver would not have had to pay attention to the road. 8. "Shall I help you do the dishes, Carlo?" said Robert. A. Robert suggested helping Carlo with the dishes. B. Robert suggested to help Carlo do the dishes. C. Robert offered Carlo to help do the dishes. D. Robert offered to help Carlo do the dishes. 9. If I hadn't had so much work to do I would have gone to the movies. A. Because I had to do so much work I couldn't go to the movies. B. I would go to the movies when I had done so much work. C. A lot of work couldn't prevent me from going to the movies. D. I never go to the movies if I have work to do. 10. "Why don't you get your hair cut, Gavin?" said Adam. A. Adam advised Gavin to cut his hair. B. Gavin was suggested to have a hair cut. C. It was suggested that Adam get Gavin's haircut. D. Adam suggested that Gavin should have his hair cut. II. Indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of the following sentences. 1. He did not remember the meeting. He went out for a coffee with his friends then.
  21. A. Not remember the meeting, he went out for a coffee with his friends. B. Not to remember the meeting, he went out for a coffee with his friends. C. Not remembered the meeting, he went out for a coffee with his friends. D. Not remembering the meeting, he went out for a coffee with his friends. 2. They left their home early. They didn't want to miss the first train. A. They left their home early so as to not miss the first train. B. They left their home early for fear that they wouldn't miss the first train. C. They left their home early so as not to miss the first train. D. They left their home early in order that not to miss the first train. 3. The traffic is so heavy. It will take us at least an hour to get there. A. Unless the traffic is heavy, it will take us at least an hour to get there. B. As the traffic is so heavy, it will take us at least an hour to get there. C. The traffic was so heavy that it took us an hour to get there. D. We will spend more than an hour to get there to avoid heavy traffic. 4. There was no poor performance. Moreover, that of the Russian dancers was certainly the best. A. The best performance was the one of the Russians while some of the others were poor. B. The Russian dancers were well-worth watching but the others weren't. C. All the dancers but the Russian performed poorly. D. They all danced well, but the Russian did the best. 5. I started training to be an accountant six months ago. I've got more months to go and then I have to take exams. A. By the time I've taken my exam, I will have started training to be an accountant for a year. B. By the time I take my exam, I will have been in training to be an accountant for a year. C. By the time I took my exam, I would have trained to be an accountant for a year. D. By the time I've taken my exam, I will be training for a year. 6. Why did Danny decide to enter the marathon? Danny's totally unfit. A. Why did Danny decide to enter the marathon who's totally unfit? B. Why did Danny, whose totally unfit, decide to enter the marathon? C. Why did Danny decide to enter the marathon, who's totally unfit? D. Why did Danny, who's totally unfit, decide to enter the marathon? PART 3: TEST YOURSELF I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined.
  22. 1. A. candy B. sandy C. many D. handy 2. A. earning B. learning C. searching D. clearing 3. A. waited B. mended C. naked D. faced 4. A. given B. risen C. ridden D. whiten 5. A. cough B. tough C. rough D. enough II. Choose the word which has a different stress pattern from the others. 1. A. designer B. origin C. history D. quality 2. A. capital B. construction C. announcement D. eventful 3. A. apartment B. tradition C. different D. expensive 4. A. monitor B. organize C. following D. inviting 5. A. accurate B. discussion C. sentiment D. industry III. Choose the correct words in the box to complete the sentences. gained patriotism favourable talented celebrated leadership 1. Her mother is always the first reader of her books, and she creates the most ___ conditions for her daughter to work. 2. Nguyen Dinh Chieu was a Vietnamese poet who was known for his ___ and anti- colonial writings against the French 3. The work, Luc Van Tien, remains one of the most ___ works in Vietnamese literature. 4. He was the most ___ football player that our school had produced in years. His talent for football was great. 5. Nguyen Hue, with his genius ___, created a people's army, no matter small or large. 6. Nguyen Binh Khiem ___ a reputation as someone who could foretell the future. IV. Indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 1. The impact of the assembly line helped Ford become the dominant firm in the motorcar industry. A. most influential B. subservient C. best-selling D. depressive 2. They all encouraged my creativity and inspired me in many ways. A. overlooked B. motivated C. rejected D. disappointed 3. She idolizes her artist mother, Ingrid, who is as strong and dangerous as she is beautiful. A. impresses B. detests C. worships D. hates 4. Clara did not care how low the Phineas fortune had fallen; no proper respectable girl would allow herself to be a maid.
  23. A. disreputable B. unworthy C. paltry D. reputable 5. He was by nature a reserved man but not a cold one. A. shy B. easygoing C. sociable D. lavish 6. She was brought up in a well-off family. She can't understand the problems we are facing. A. poor B. broke C. wealthy D. kind V. Indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 1. P.G. Wodehouse's broadcasts attracted the strongest criticism from countrymen who felt it appeared he was indifferent to the war. A. attentive B. regardless C. unresponsive D. apathetic 2. Although many criticized his seemingly over-generous pay. Henry Ford also pointed out that the high wage helped the workers to be able to afford the cars. A. lavish B. open-handed C. big-hearted D. mean 3. Annie ran Tobin's Café on the Quay for some 30 years where she was known to be a very generous and charitable lady. A. free-handed B. generous C. non-profit-making D. penny-pinching 4. Rich, worldly and sophisticated, he could have been the ideal husband for Gwendolyn but feels compelled to crush her independent spirit and mold her into his perfect wife. A. elegant B. naive C. knowledgeable D. worldly-wise 5. There has been insufficient rainfall over the past two years, and fanners are having trouble. A. abundant B. adequate C. unsatisfactory D. dominant 6. We strongly believe that he's innocent of the crime. We do not think that he did it A. crimeless B. skillful C. clean D. guilty 7. The situation seems to be changing minute by minute. A. from time to time B. time after time C. again and again D. very slowly 8. Jose had a hard time comparing the iPhone to the Samsung phone because to him they were apples and oranges. A. containing too many technical details B. very similar C. completely different D. very complicated VI. Indicate the correct answer to complete each of the following questions. 1. Hawking was honored with many ___ awards like the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. A. exceptional B. imperative C. indispensible D. prestigious 2. Her range of media enterprises has made Oprah one of the richest ___ women.
  24. A. ready-made B. self-made C. tailor-made D. independent-made 3. When I ___ home last night, I ___ that Jane ___ a beautiful candle light dinner. A. had arrived/discovered/preparing B. was arriving/has discovered/was preparing C. have arrived/was discovering/had prepared D. arrived/discovered/was preparing 4. Tran Hung Dao was a great ___ to lure the enemy to enter deeply into his land, then attacked to destroy them. A. strategy B. strategist C. soldier D. king 5. ___ Emperor Quang Trung was ___ second emperor of ___ Tay Son Dynasty, reigning from 1788 to 1792. A. The - a - the B. X - a - the C. X - the - the D. X – the - X 6. While I ___ TV last night, a mouse ran across the floor. A. watch B. watched C. was watching D. am watching 7. When it began to rain, they ___ in the yard. A. played B. had played C. were playing D. have played 8. Liz and Laura is going shopping together. Liz: "Look! This sweater is beautiful." - Laura:"___?" A. Why not trying it on B. Why not trying on it C. Why not try it on D. Why not try on it 9. Anna is seeing Bill off at the airport. Anna: “___” - Bill: "I will." A. I'll miss you much. B. Give my best wishes to your parents. C. Have a nice trip! D. Wish you a happy journey. 10. When I woke up this morning, it ___. A. rained B. was raining C. has rained D. is raining 11. Her ___ to medicine was so great that she had little time for anything else. A. importance B. dedication C. emphasis D. reputation 12. Bill Gates was ___ middle child of William H. Gates II, ___ prominent Seattle Lawyer, and Mary Gates, who worked as teacher before she had children. A. the / a / a B. a / a / a C. the / the / a D. the / the / the 13. While Tom ___ tennis, Ann ___ a shower. A. played / took B. playing / taking C. was playing / was taking D. was play / was take 14. When they ___ in the garden, the phone ___.
  25. A. worked / was ringing B. were working / rang C. worked / rang D. work / rings 15. Oprah Winfrey has been an important role model for black American women, breaking down many invisible ___. A. trends B. gaps C. obstacles D. barriers 16. It was on Oprah that Armstrong finally made a dramatic ___ that he had used performance-enhancing drugs during his cycling career. A. encouragement B. confession C. receipt D. acceptance 17. In 2004, Barack Obama was elected to the US Senate where he ___ a reputation as one of rising stars in the Democrat Party. A. acquired B. refrained C. gained D. highlighted 18. Michael Porter has ___ as the strategic adviser to many successful U.S. companies and other international companies. A. served B. employed C. described D. appointed 19. Gia Long had to ___ many difficulties in his early life, as he became the target of rival groups attempting to wipe out the Nguyen clan completely A. deal B. cope C. encounter D. surpass 20. A year into his presidency, Barack Obama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (2009) ___ his promise to promote world peace. A. about B. for C. with D. on 21. George VI ___ royal duties such as representing his father at coalmines, factories, and rail yards. A. paid off B. got over C. gave in D. took up 22. Nelson Mandela is one of the most ___ political leaders of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Century. A. admired B. perfect C. talent D. skilled 23. Emergency crews are ___ progress in fixing the broken levees, but they are in a desperate race to stop the flooding. A. making B. doing C. getting D. becoming 24. The dream of a successful Scotland is capable of ___. A. effort B. achievement C. performance D. realization 25. If necessary, part of the responsibility is ___ by the internal security troops. A. taken on B. taken over C. taken in D. taken up 26. She is a ___ example of what people with disabilities can achieve. A. shining B. brightening C. glamorous D. gloomy 27. He is a captain who leads ___.
  26. A. by instance B. by mirror C. by example D. by sample 28. Japan is often quoted as the prime ___ of a modern industrial nation. A. example B. performer C. instructor D. pioneer 29. Some argue that the intellectual life of Bulgarians in the nineteenth century was ___ influenced by Russian culture. A. superficially B. mightily C. terribly D. strongly 30. Peter is an artist himself and has some of his own very interesting ___ on sale in the shop. A. create B. creators C. creations D. creativity 31. We must continually evaluate the ___ of each change on the product as a whole. A. performing B. possibility C. impact D. affect 32. A couple who gave their 50th blood ___ were presented with awards to mark their achievement. A. deficiency B. adequacy C. plenty D. donation VII. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that needs correction. 1. Only after Theodore Roosevelt became president did conservation developed into a major environmental issue in the United States A. Only after B. developed C. into D. environmental 2. Contemporary poet James Merrill writes autobiographical verse that building on remembrances of his childhood. A. Contemporary B. writes C. building on D. his 3. Together Rogers and Hammerstein wrote nine musicals, the first of whose was Oklahoma (1943). A. Together B. musicals C. first D. whose 4. Benjamin Franklin was the editor of the largest newspaper in the colonies, a diplomatic representative to France and later to England, and he invented many useful devices A. was B. the largest C. he invented D. many 5. Albert Einstein was such brilliant a scientist that many of his colleagues had to study for several years in order to form opinions about his theories. A. such brilliant a scientist B. many of his colleagues C. study D. about VIII. Choose the word or phrase from the box that best fits the blank space in the following passage. earned took based regard examples saw rest by Jack Ma is one of the world's greatest living (1) ___ of entrepreneurship today. Once a poor lad who survived (2) ___ guiding tourists, Ma left no stone unturned to rise above his humble condition and achieve success. One of the first steps he (3) ___ in this (4)
  27. ___ was to improve his communication skills by learning English. Jack was one of the first few individuals who (5) ___ Internet as a business opportunity even at a time when the (6) ___ of the world didn't believe in his thoughts. After starting his first venture using a mere $20000, the entrepreneur (7) ___ around $800,000 in a matter of just three years. However, it is the e-commerce (8) ___ venture, 'Alibaba', which he founded in the early 2000s that catapulted this entrepreneur to global fame. IX. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that best fits the blank Spare the following passage. Donald John Trump is the 45th President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017. (1) ___ to being a politician, he is a successful business magnate and television personality as well. The son of a wealthy real estate developer, Trump attended the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania before taking (2) ___ of his family's business. He owned several beauty (3) ___ and ventured into (4) ___ television as well. Expanding the (5) ___ of his ambitions, he entered national politics in the early 2000s and (6) ___ his eyes on the presidential office. As a politician, his career was marred by allegations of sexual (7) ___ and he also earned much (8) ___ for his extravagant lifestyle and (9) ___ comments on immigrants from Islamic nations. (10) ___ the controversies surrounding him, Trump (11) ___ for the 2016 presidential election as a Republican and (12) ___ Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in a surprise victory. Donald Trump is the first person to assume presidency without prior military or government service and at 70, he is also the oldest one to assume the office. 1. A. In addition B. In contrast C. Apart D. Other 2. A. steps B. charge C. measures D. advantages 3. A. pageants B. competitions C. tests D. examinations 4. A. realistic B. true C. actual D. reality 5. A. scale B. scope C. horizons D. amount 6. A. put B. set C. lay D. lain 7. A. abuse B. prejudices C. misconduct D. mistakes 8. A. criticism B. accusation C. blame D. conviction 9. A. burning B. confusing C. respectful D. controversial 10. A. Thanks to B. Other than C. Despite D. With 11. A. went B. applied C. ran D. struggled 12. A. won B. defeated C. suggested D. appointed X. Read the passage and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for each question.
  28. Joyce Carol Oates published her first collection of short stories, By The North Gate, in 1963, two years after she had received her master's degree from the University of Wisconsin and become an instructor of English at the University of Detroit. Her productivity since then has been prodigious, accumulating in less than two decades to nearly thirty titles, including novels, collections of short stories and verse, play and literary criticism. In the meantime, she has continued to teach, moving in 1967 from the University of Detroit to the University of Windsor, in Ontario, and, in 1978, to Princeton University Reviewers have admired her enormous energy, but find a productivity of such magnitude difficult to assess. In a period characterized by the abandonment of so much of the realistic tradition by authors such as John Barth, Donald Barthelme, and Thomas Pynchon, Joyce Carol Oates has seemed at times determinedly old-fashioned in her insistence on the essentially mimetic quality other fiction. Hers is a world of violence, insanity, Fractured love, and hopeless loneliness. Although some of it appears to come from her own direct observations, her dreams, and her fears, much more is clearly from the experiences of others. Her first novel With Shuddering Fall (1964), dealt with stock car racing, though she had never seen a race. In Them (1969) she focused on Detroit from the Depression through the riots of 1967, drawing much of her material from the deep impression made on her by the problems of one of her students. Whatever the source and however shocking the events or the motivations, however, her fictive world remains strikingly akin to that real one reflected in the daily newspapers, the television news and talk shows, and popular magazines of our day. 1. What is the main purpose of the passage? A. To review Oates' By the North Gate B. To compare some modern writers C. To outline Oates career D. To describe Oates' childhood 2. Which of the following does the passage indicate about Joyce Carol Oates' first publication? A. It was not successful B. It was a volume of short fiction C. It was part of her master's thesis. D. It was about an English instructor in Detroit 3. Which of the following does the passage suggest about Joyce Carol Oates in terms of her writing career? A. Most of her work is based on personal experience. B. Her style is imitative of other contemporary authors. C. She has produced a surprising amount of fictions in a relative short time. D. She has experienced long nonproductive periods in her writing. 4. The word "fictive" in the passage is closest in meaning to ___. A. imaginary B. attractive C. helpful D. impressive 5. What was the subject of Joyce Carol Oates' first novel? A. Loneliness B. Racing C. Teaching D. Insanity 6. Why does the author mention Oates' book Them?
  29. A. It is her best piece of nonfiction B. It is an autobiography C. It is a typical novel of the 1960's. D. It is a fictional work based on another person's experiences. 7. Which of the following would Joyce Carol Oates be most likely to write? A. A romance novel set in the nineteenth century B. A story with an unhappy ending C. A dialogue for a talk show D. A science fiction novel XI. Read the passage, and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for each question. Any list of the greatest thinkers in history contains the name of the brilliant physicist Albert Einstein. His theories of relativity led to entirely new ways of thinking about time, space, matter, energy and gravity. Einstein's work led to such scientific advances as the control of atomic energy, even television as a practical application of Einstein's work. In 1902 Einstein became an examiner in the Swiss patent office at Bern. In 1905, at age 26, he published the first of five major research papers. The first one provided a theory explaining Brownian movement, the zig-zag motion of microscopic particles in suspension. The second paper laid the foundation for the photon, or quantum, theory of light. In it he proposed that light is composed of separate packets of energy, called quanta or photons, that have some of the properties of particles and some of the properties of waves. A third paper contained the "special theory of relativity" which showed that time and motion are relative to the observer, if the speed of light is constant and the natural laws are the same everywhere in the universe. The fourth paper was a mathematical addition to the special theory of relativity. Here Einstein presented his famous formula, E = m(cc), known as the energy mass equivalence. In 1916, Einstein published his general theory of relativity. In it he proposed that gravity is not a force, but a curve in the space-time continuum, created by the presence of mass. Einstein spoke out frequently against nationalism, the exalting of one nation above all others. He opposed war and violence and supported Zionism, the movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, they denounced his ideas. He then moved to the United States. In 1939 Einstein learned that two German chemists had split the uranium atom. Einstein wrote to President Franklind. Roosevelt warning him that this scientific knowledge could lead to Germany developing an atomic bomb. He suggested the United States begin its own atomic bomb research. 1. According to the passage I, Einstein's primary work was in the area of ___. A. chemistry B. biology C. physics D. math 2. Which of the following inventions is mentioned in the passage as a practical application of Einstein's discoveries? A. Radio B. Television C. Automobiles D. Computer
  30. 3. According to the passage, Einstein supported all of the following except ___. A. nationalism B. the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine C. atomic bomb research in the United States D. the defeat of the Nazis 4. According to the passage in which country did Einstein live in 1930s? A. Switzerland B. the United States C. Germany D. Israel 5. The word "exalting" in the passage is closest in meaning to ___. A. criticism B. elimination C. support D. elevation 6. It is clear from the tone of the passage that the author feels ___. A. Einstein's work in physics was somewhat tarnished by his conservative political views. B. Einstein's work in physics, though theoretically impressive, led to few practical applications. C. Albert Einstein was one of the most brilliant thinkers in history. D. Einstein's theories have been consistently proven incorrect. 7. According to Einstein, light is composed of separate packets of energy called ___. A. electrons B. photoelectrons C. gamma rays D. quanta XII. Indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions. 1. Even if the job market is not stable, those who persist will be able to land jobs eventually. A. When it's hard to find a job, jobs on land are even harder. B. Patient people will secure jobs even in an instable job market. C. Only persistent job seekers can find jobs. D. In land jobs are only available to persistent jobs applicants. 2. Only their own mother can tell Simon and Mike apart. A. No one other than their own mother can separate Simon and Mike. B. Simon and Mike bear some resemblance to each other. C. It's very difficult to distinguish Simon and Mike. D. Except for their own mother, no one can talk to Simon and Mike. 3. "How beautiful is the dress you have just bought!" Peter said to Mary. A. Peter promised to buy Mary a beautiful dress. B. Peter said thanks to Mary for her beautiful dress. C. Peter asked Mary how she had just bought her beautiful dress. D. Peter complimented Mary on her beautiful dress.
  31. 4. Those who are riding a motorbike are not allowed to take off their helmet. A. People must never take their helmet off while they are riding a motorbike. B. Those who are wearing a helmet are not allowed to ride a motorbike. C. It is the helmet that one needn't wear when he is riding a motorbike. D. You should not wear a helmet when you are riding a motorbike. XIII. Indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of the following sentences. 1. The soccer team knew they lost the match. They soon started to blame each other. A. Not only did the soccer team lose the match but they blamed each other as well. B. No sooner had the soccer team started to blame each other than they knew they lost the match. C. As soon as they blamed each other, the soccer team knew they lost the match. D. Hardly had the soccer team known they lost the match when they started to blame each other. 2. We have been friends for years. It is quite easy to share secrets between us. A. Being friends for years, we find it quite easy to share secrets. B. We find it quite easy to share secrets, being friends for years. C. We have been friends so that it is quite easy to share secrets between us. D. Having been friends for years, we find it quite easy to share secrets between us. 3. The government knows the extent of the problem. The government needs to take action soon. A. Knowing the extent of the problem, the government needs to take action soon. B. The government knows the extent of the problem whereas it needs to take action soon. C. The government knows the extent of the problem so that it needs to take action soon. D. The government knows the extent of the problem or else it needs to take action soon. 4. He didn't notice anything. We might have been in trouble otherwise. A. If he noticed anything, we would be in trouble. B. If he hadn't noticed anything, we couldn't have been in trouble. C. If he had noticed anything, we could have been in trouble. D. If he noticed anything, we could have been in trouble. Unit 2. URBANIZATION PART 1: VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR REVIEW A. VOCABULARY - industrialization /ɪnˌdʌstriələˈzeɪʃən/ (n.): sự cơng nghiệp hĩa - accelerate /əkˈseləreɪt/ (v): làm gia tăng, tăng tốc
  32. - in anticipation of something: để dành cho, để đề phịng, lường trước - urbanization /ˌɜːbənaɪˈzeɪʃən/ (n.): sự đơ thị hĩa - pressurize /ˈpreʃəraɪz/ (v): nén, gây áp lực - result in (v) = bring about, cause: gây ra, dẫn đến - sanitation /ˌsỉnɪˈteɪʃn/ (n.): điều kiện vệ sinh - irrigation /ˌɪrɪˈgeɪʃən (n): sự tưới tiêu - slum /slʌm/ (n): khu nhà ổ chuột - insufficient /ˈɪnsəˈfɪʃənt/ (adj): khơng đủ, thiếu - wastewater /weɪstˌwɔ:tə/ (n): nước bẩn - infrastructure /ˈɪnfrəˌstrʌktʃə/ (n): cơ sở hạ tầng - facilities /fəˈsɪlɪtiz/ (n): phương thức, phương tiện - migrate /maɪˈɡreɪt/ (v): di trú, di cư - immigrate /ˈɪmɪgreɪt/ (v): nhập cư - immigrant /ˈɪmɪgrənt/ (n): dân nhập cư - management capacity /ˈmỉnɪdʒmənt kəˈpỉsɪti/ (n): năng lực quản lý - urbanization process /ɜ:b(ə)naɪˈzeɪʃ(ə)n ˈprəʊsɛs/ (n): quá trình đơ thị hĩa - deeply-rooted /ˈdi:pli- ˈru:tɪd/ (adj): ăn sâu, bám rễ - unemployment /ˌʌnɪmˈplɔɪmənt/ (n): sự thất nghiệp - densely heavily polluted: ơ nhiễm nặng - thinly sparsely polluted: ơ nhiễm nhẹ - long-term /'lɒŋtɜ:m/ (adj): dài hạn - short-term /ʃɔ:t-tɜ:m/ (adj): ngắn hạn - foreign direct investment (FDI) /'fɒrɪn dɪ'rɛkt ɪn'vɛstmənt/ (n): đầu tư trực tiếp nước ngồi - exacerbate /ɛks'ỉsə(:)beɪt (v): làm trầm trọng - relocate /ri:ləʊ'keɪt/ (v): di chuyển tới, xây dựng lại - inflow /'ɪnfləʊ/ (v): chảy vào - adverse /'ỉdvɜ:s/ (adj): tiêu cực - amenity /ə'mi:nəti/ (n): đầy đủ tiện nghi - sustainable development /səs'teɪnəbl dɪ'vɛləpmənt/ (n): phát triển bền vững - instability /ˌɪnstə'bɪlɪti/ (n): tính khơng ổn định, khơng kiên định - housing development /dɪ'vel.əp.mənt/ (n.): sự phát triển nhà ở - fatality or mortality rate /fə'tỉl.ə.ti/; /mɔ: 'tỉl.ə.ti/ (n.): tỷ lệ tử vong
  33. Ex: During his tenure, the fatality rate rose up to 150%. - multicultural /ˌmʌlti'kʌltʃərəl/ (adj.): đa văn hĩa. - overpopulated /ˌəʊvə'pɒpjuleɪtɪd/ (adj.): quá đơng dân - population density /'densəti/ (n.): mật độ dân số Ex: The population density of Vietnam is quite high compared to the average. - Confront with something = face, come up against something: đối mặt, chạm trán với cái gì - in hopes of V-ing: trong hi vọng làm gì Ex: The fox tried in hopes of reaching the grapes, but it was all in vain. - take advantage of something /əd'vỉn.t̬ɪdʒ/= make use of something: tận dụng, lấy ưu thế từ cái gì - strain /streɪn/ (n.): gánh nặng, áp lực B. GRAMMAR REVIEW I. CÂU GIẢ ĐỊNH (Subjunctive) Câu giả định hay cịn gọi là câu cầu khiến là loại câu mà đối tượng thứ nhất muốn đối tượng thứ hai làm một việc gì nhưng khơng mang tính ép buộc như câu mệnh lệnh. Trong câu giả định, người ta dùng dạng nguyên thể khơng cĩ TO của động từ sau một số động từ chính mang tính cầu khiến. THAT phải luơn xuất hiện trong dạng câu này. Subject + Verb (any tense) + that + subject + (should) + verb fin simple form] 1. Những động từ và danh từ thường được theo sau bởi Subjunctive là: advise v. advice n. command v. command n. demand v. demand n. suggest v. suggestion n. prefer v. preference n. recommend v. recommendation n. require requirement n. decree v. decree n. ask v. order v. order n. insist v. insistence n. request v. request n. propose v. proposal n. urge v. urgency n. Ex: His parents insisted that he (should) find a job and settle down in a big city. It is recommended that people (should take regular exercise. She demanded that I should tell her the truth. The recommendation that all people affected by the storm (should) be evacuated immediately was approved. 2. Những tính từ thường được theo sau bởi Subjunctive là: advisable urgent imperative essential necessary obligatory vital fundamental
  34. important mandatory crucial desirable It + be (any tense) + adjective + that + subject + verb [in simple form] Ex: It is necessary that everyone be here on time. It is essential that pollution be controlled and eventually eliminated. It is vital that no one else know about the secret government operation. Lưu ý: Nếu bỏ THAT trong cơng thức trên thì: It be adj for somebody to Vinf. • It is necessary that everyone be here on time. → It is necessary for everyone to be here on time. • It is essential that pollution be controlled and eventually eliminated. → It is essential for pollution to be controlled and eventually eliminated. • It is vital that no one else know about the secret government operation. → It is vital for no one else to know about the secret government operation. 3. Dùng với một số trường hợp khác • Câu giả định cịn dùng được trong một số câu cảm thán, thường bao hàm các thế lực siêu nhiên. Ex: God save the queen! (Chúa phù hộ cho nữ hồng.) God be with you! = Good bye (Khi chia tay nhau.) Curse this frog! (Chết tiệt con cĩc này?) • Dùng với một số thành ngữ: - Come what may: Dù cĩ chuyện gì đi nữa. Ex: Come what may we will stand by you. - If need be: Nếu cần Ex: If need be we can take another road. • Dùng với “if this be” trong trường hợp muốn nêu ra một giả định từ phía người nĩi nhưng khơng thật chắc chắn lắm về khả năng. Ex: If this be prevent right, you would be considered innocent. 4. Câu giả định dung với it is time It is time + (for smb) to do sth: Đã đến lúc ai đĩ phải làm gì (thời gian khơng giả định) Ex: It is time for me to get to the airport (just in time). It is time/ high time/ about time + subject + simple past (Đã đến lúc – giả định thời gian đến trễ một chút) Nhận xét: Hight/ about được dùng trước time để thêm vào ý nhấn mạnh.
  35. Ex: It’s high time I left for the airport. = (It is a little bit late). PART 2: PRACTICE A. PHONETICS I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined. 1. A. prestige B. connect C. harvest D. congestion 2. A. housing B. crisis C. cost D. custom 3. A. navigate B. necessitate C. inadequate D. debate 4. A. muzzle B. lizard C. pizza D. puzzle 5. A. bargain B. campaign C. ascertain D. complain II. Choose the word which has a different stress pattern from the others. 1. A. decrease B. facilitate C. fluctuate D. ensure 2. A. propose B. summarize C. centralize D. illustrate 3. A. transformation B. urbanization C. revolution D. population 4. A. agricultural B. unemployed C. sustainable D. economic 5. A. miserable B. infrastructure C. amenity D. necessary B. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR I. Choose the correct words in the box to complete the sentences. metropolis relatively ticking density ranking slums productivity urbanization 1. The ___ of population is quite high in urban areas. 2. Rich countries, despite having solved all their basic needs, experience a similar accumulation of social pressure as if it was a ___ time bomb. 3. If Nigeria's population continues to grow and people move to cities at the same rate as now, Lagos could become the world's largest ___, home to 85 or 100 million people. 4. Nearly half of the world's 3.9 billion urban dwellers reside in ___ small settlements with fewer than 500,000 inhabitants. 5. With nearly 38 million people, Tokyo tops UN's ___ of most populous cities followed by Delhi, Shanghai, Mexico City, São Paulo and Mumbai. 6. ___ are urban areas that are heavily populated with substandard housing and very poor living conditions. II. Give the correct form of the words in the following sentences. 1. Since the renovation policy launched in 1986, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, has experienced the fastest ___ process. URBAN
  36. 2. There has been a rapid ___ of rural people to urban areas for jobs and better living. MIGRATE 3. Urbanization promotes foreign direct ___ which in turn helps in improving the foreign exchange reserves of the country. INVEST 4. The support policies for social housing development in Vietnam remained ___ as only a few people were lucky enough to be able to get access to preferential loans. EFFECT 5. Several international organizations want to invest in social ___ development for the youth in Vietnam. HOUSE 6. At the moment, finding solutions for ___ urban development is one of Vietnam's current top priorities. SUSTAIN 7. Urban ___ must rely on the rural hinterland for agricultural production. DWELL 8. As the world continues to ___, sustainable development depends increasingly on the successful management of urban growth. URBAN 9. A city that grows without these structures in place is at high risk for poverty and ___. STABLE 10. The disease is common in developing countries lacking adequate sewage and sanitation ___. FACILITATE 11. Some people worry that the city has become ___. POPULATE 12. Since the number of people aspiring for jobs is more than jobs available, ___ is a natural outcome of situation. EMPLOY III. Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences. 1. Linda insisted that the newly-born baby ___ after her husband's father. A. could be named B. be named C. must be named D. ought to be named 2. It was such a beautiful evening that one of us suggested we ___ the meeting outside. A. could have B. had C. might have D. have 3. I requested that first-year students ___ to change their courses in the first two weeks. A. would be permitted B. be permitted C. were permitted D. are permitted 4. His advisor recommended that he ___ at least three courses each semester A. takes B. can take C. should take D. would take 5. It is important that he ___ to the director of the programme. A. should speak B. speak C. would speak D. speaks 6. It's important that they ___ to take her medicine twice a day.
  37. A. remember B. remembering C. to remember D. remembers 7. I suggest that Frank ___ the instructions carefully before playing that game. A. reading B. to read C. read D. reads 8. Mrs. Smith demanded that the heater ___ immediately. Her apartment was freezing. A. repaired B. be repaired C. repair D. to repair 9. It's vital that the United States ___ on improving its public education system. A. focuses B. focus C. focusing D. focused 10. The monk insisted that the tourists ___ the temple until they had removed their shoes. A. not entering B. not to enter C. not enter D. don't enter IV. Choose the correct answer that best completes each of the following sentences. 1. Due to industrialization, many changes were ___ in people's daily lives. A. kept B. got C. maintained D. made 2. Urbanization is happening at such a brisk rate that the government is planning entire new cities in ___ of large new urban populations. A. expectation B. anticipation C. danger D. view 3. The rapid ___ of rural population to urban places give rise to housing problem and thus slums are developed in these places. A. increase B. rushes C. inflows D. poverty 4. The increase in population in urban places ___ water and sanitation facilities, which results ___ environmental pollution and health hazards. A. destroys - from B. breaks - into C. pressurizes - in D. decreases - on 5. Slums are urban areas that are ___ populated with substandard housing and very poor living conditions. A. thinly B. thickly C. crowdedly D. heavily 6. Unemployment and poverty force people to ___ in anti-social activities. A. include B. engage C. take D. oppose 7. Due to dumping of sewage from factories in water bodies, water pollution often results ___ of epidemics. A. breakout B. outbreaks C. out breakings D. breaking outs 8. Access to education, health, social services and cultural activities is more ___ available to people in cities than in villages. A. readily B. willingly C. extremely D. comparatively 9. The public authority of Ho Chi Minh City is going to be ___ problems of urban planning and management. A. come up with B. addressed with C. contented with D. got into
  38. 10. Vietnam is facing numerous challenges caused by rapid urbanization, leaving burdens on its technical and social ___. A. appliance B. facilities C. equipment D. infrastructure 11. Vietnam needs to ___ its urbanization opportunities to become a middle income country. A. get B. seize C. make use D. exploit 12. Drastic measures to boost housing development should be ___ to prevent properly market ___ becoming a boom. A. initiated - from B. launched - for C. complemented - against D. conducted - to 13. The support policies for social housing development in Vietnam remained ineffective as only a few people were lucky enough to get ___ to preferential loans. A. entrance B. method C. access D. approach 14. Although the UK is an urban society, more and more people are choosing to ___ to the countryside. A. distribute B. relocate C. apply D. reach 15. In the absence of adequate medical services, congestion and poor sanitation in big cities may cause health ___. A. danger B. disadvantages C. demerits D. hazards 16. The United Nations estimates that 1.1 billion people have no access to fresh water and 2.4 billion lack access to adequate ___. A. sanitation B. facilities C. equipment D. congestion 17. In order to deal with problems including waste and water treatment and public transportation, developing smart cities will be the ___ such challenges. A. means of coping with B. key to meeting C. approach to obtaining D. remedy for getting into 18. The government of Vietnam has given ___ to developing the digital industry, smart tourism, and agriculture by 2020. A. preference B. priority C. advantage D. discrimination 19. There is a heavy ___ on private transport that has led to the congestion of roads and increasing commuting time and pollution A. base B. independence C. reliance D. lean 20. It is impolite that you ___ there when he gets off the plane. A. be not standing B. been not standing C. not be standing D. not been standing 21. They hope to ___ a cure for the disease. A. catch up on B. come up with C. fill up with D. go out with
  39. 22. Although it was more than an hour late, the superstar finally showed up and ___ the attention of the audience, A. grabbed B. held C. paid D. took 23. Don't worry. We're in good time; there's ___ to hurry. A. impossible B. no need C. no purpose D. unnecessary 24. Overpopulation in urban areas tends to create unfavorable conditions, which may result in ___ of food in developing countries, A. damages B. failures C. shortage D. supplies 25. Urbanization can bring social health and benefit; ___, it also has its drawback. A. by the way B. furthermore C. however D. moreover V. Indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 1. Urbanization brings with it several consequences - both adverse and beneficial. A. negative B. favorable C. advantageous D. preferential 2. The quality of urban water bodies is increasingly exacerbated by a huge volume of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater. A. added B. decreased C. reduced D. aggravated 3. A city that grows too quickly can also experience an array of environmental issues. A. variety B. proportion C. rate D. pace 4. Low-income dwellers are generally living in older areas of modern cities, which are well known for poor sanitation, lack of health facilities and basic amenities. A. aid B. facilities C. resource D. place 5. India is facing a house shortage in urban areas at the moment and more housing would be required in order to meet future demand. A. encounter B. introduce C. fulfill D. stumble 6. A smart sustainable city will meet the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social and environmental aspects. A. in addition to B. according to C. with regard to D. with a view to 7. As cities grew more crowded, and often more impoverished and costly, more and more people began to migrate back out of them. A. well-off B. rich C. penniless D. fertile 8. Urbanization spurs a unique set of issues to both humans and animals. A. stimulates B. prevents C. varies D. descends
  40. 9. Automobile exhaust produces elevated lead levels in urban air. A. humble B. lowly C. diminished D. uplifted 10. Urban development can magnify the risk of environmental hazards such as flash flooding. A. understate B. minimize C. exaggerate D. reduce VI. Indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 1. Urbanization has many adverse effects on the structure of society as gigantic concentrations of people compete for limited resources. A. favorable B. disadvantageous C. unlucky D. unpropitious 2. The absence of effective and representative government exacerbates urban environmental health problems. A. aggravate B. heighten C. reduce D. magnify 3. Most of the world's largest cities are considerably smaller by the year 2000 than had been expected. A. substantially B. slightly C. significantly D. greatly 4. Cities are like magnets, with the potential to take care of everything from the most basic needs to the most intangible desires. A. impalpable B. invisible C. indefinable D. clear 5. The proportion between public and private space in such spontaneous urbanization is invariably less than 1:10. A. never B. regularly C. habitually D. dependably 6. Many people move to urban areas seeking for job opportunity as well as stable employment. A. temporary B. firm C. steady D. substantial 7. His decision had been made on the spur of the moment. A. all of a sudden B. out of the blue C. unexpectedly D. predictably 8. Unregulated, unplanned urban sprawl is often the cheapest option in the short run - but the long-run costs to society, the economy and the environment can be dire. A. positive B. terrible C. dreadful D. distressing 9. The police finally arrested the notorious criminal. A. respectable B. serious C. infamous D. gentle 10. The indiscriminate use of pesticides has wiped out many rare species. A. uncritical B. unplanned C. extensive D. methodical VII. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that needs correction.
  41. 1. Government should be used national resources in a more efficient way in order to meet the needs of growing populations. A. be used B. more efficient C. in order to D. needs 2. Because of urbanization continues, not only the infrastructure for health but also other social services in cities need improving. A. Because of B. not only C. but also D. need improving 3. The green belt is also getting real dense due to people moving out of the city too many. A. is B. real C. moving D. many 4. To accommodate the fastly growing population, the government must come up with a solution soon. A. fastly B. must C. with D. soon 5. The concentration of population may help to minimize our environmental impact on the planet and help cities designs policies and practices to prepare for the influx. A. concentration B. on C. designs D. practices VIII. Indicate the correct response to each of the following exchanges. 1. Liz is telling Andrew about her first novel. Liz. "Guess what? My first novel has just been published.” – Andrew. “___” A. It's my pleasure. B. Congratulations! C. Better luck next time! D. It's very kind of you. 2. Mrs. Smith and her students are visiting the zoo. Mike. "Can I feed the gorilla, Mrs. Smith?" – Mrs. Smith. “___. The sign says 'No feeding the animals'.” A. Of course you can B. I don't think it works. C. I'm sure about that. D. I'm afraid not 3. Hung was invited to Hoa's party. He wants to thank her for the lovely party. Hung: "Thank you very much for a lovely party." – Hoa: “___” A. Thanks. B. Have a good day! C. You are welcome. D. Cheers. 4. Tom: "I'm sorry, I won't be able to come". - Mary: “___.” A. Great! B. Oh, that's annoying C. Well, never mind D. Sounds likes fun 5. Tom: "Can you make it at 3 p.m on Friday for our meeting?" - Tony: “___” A. OK, that's fine. B. That's not true. I met him three days ago. C. Very well, thanks. D. You have a point there, but I don't think so. 6. Student: "Could you help me to fax this report?" - Librarian: “___’ A. Sorry I have no idea. B. It's very kind of you to say so.
  42. C. What rubbish! I don't think it's helpful. D. Certainly. What's the fax number? 7. John was in Hanoi and wanted to send a parcel to his parents. He asked a local passer-by the way to the post-office. Choose the most suitable response to fill in the blank in the following exchange. - John: "Can you show me the way to the nearest post office, please?" - Passer-by: “___” A. Not way, sorry. B. Just round the corner over there. C. Look it up in a dictionary! D. There's no traffic near here. 8. Lora has just bought a new skirt that she likes very much. Choose the most suitable response to fill in the blank in the following exchange. - Jane: "You look great in that red skirt, Lora!" - Lora: “___” A. No, I don't think so. B. Oh, you don't like it, do you? C. Thanks I bought it at Macy's. D. Thanks, my mum bought it. C. READING I. Choose the word or phrase from the box that best fits the blank space in the following passage. especially relies which infrastructure transform environmentally CITIES GOING GREEN As more and more people concentrate in cities, planners are looking for ways to (1) ___ cities into better living spaces. This can be done by improving existing (2) ___ while also creating more public spaces that are both beautiful and green. This can be hard to accomplish, (3) ___ in cities with a haphazard fashion. Some cities have been created with the idea of a green city as the goal. One such city, Masdar City in the United Arab Emirates, aims to become a model for other cities to follow. It is being known as a truly green city that (4) ___ strictly on renewable sources such as solar energy to provide all of its energy needs. In addition, it will be a zero waste city in (5) ___ everything that is used can be recycled. Whether it will truly accomplish its goal remains to be seen, but it will also act as an experiment for (6) ___ -friendly areas to be tested. II. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that best fits the blank space in the following passage. SUSTAINABLE CITIES: A CLEANER FUTURE For the past few decades, there has been an urbanization trend around the world, where more and more people are moving to cities. Since 2009, the UN Habitat (1) ___ that over 3 million people are moving into cities every week. Urban areas have been an attractive destination for migrants in (2) ___ of finding a better job and a higher (3) ___ living.
  43. While migrants contribute (4) ___ to the economies of cities, ever-increasing populations raise issues of congestion, (5) ___ of resources, and increased (6) ___ on waste management infrastructure, healthcare, and education. By 2050, it is estimated that 70% of the world's population will live in cities which makes the concept of Sustainable Cities an efficient (7) ___ the growing population. (8) ___, Sustainable Cities have an essential role in the urbanization trend to improve residents lives by (9) ___ environmental initiatives and projects such as limiting CO2 gas emissions in the air, using renewable energy sources, or bringing awareness to environmental issues. With outdoor pollution killing over 3 million lives yearly, (10) ___ in cities, it is evident that urbanization can increase the environmental (11) ___ upon cities. Many cities around the world have redesigned their city planning strategies and commenced initiatives (12) ___ these issues directly. 1. A. estimates B. expects C. claims D. counts 2. A. anticipation B. hopes C. view D. possession 3. A. reason for B. tax of C. standard of D. cost of 4. A. virtually B. practically C. immensely D. annually 5. A. distribution B. collection C. reputation D. solution 6. A garbage B. pressure C. demand D. dependence 7. A. reaction to B. resolution to C. answer to D. approach to 8. A. Therefore B. Moreover C. As regards D. However 9. A. focusing on B. depending on C. developing on D. putting on 10. A. the most B. almost C. equally D. mostly 11. A. affect B. cause C. effect D. drawback 12. A. to accept B. to assault C. to improve D. to target III. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that best fits the blank space in the following passage. burdens than proportion for enjoy grounds stagnant likely with prospects AN UNCERTAIN URBAN FUTURE Most publications discussing urban change predict that the world will continue to urbanise far into the future. Such projections should be viewed (1) ___ caution. A steady increase in urbanisation among low income nations is (2) ___ to occur only if they also have steadily growing economies. While we should hope that lower income nations achieve more buoyant economies, the current (3) ___ for most of them are hardly encouraging, with political instability, civil war, and large debt (4) ___.
  44. There are also (5) ___ for doubting whether a large (6) ___ of the world's population will ever live in very large cities. In (7) ___ economies, urbanisation levels do not increase much. In successful economies much new investment is going to small or medium sized cities. In regions with advanced transport and communications systems, rural inhabitants and enterprises can (8) ___ standards of infrastructure and services and access to information that historically have been available only in urban areas. Thus, both low and high income nations may have smaller (9) ___ expected increases in the populations of their cities, although (10) ___ very different reasons. IV. Read the passage, and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for each question. LIVING ROOFTOPS Creative urban planners continually seek new ways to make cities more satisfying places to live. One versatile tool in this pursuit is the "green roof" which draw from fundamental precepts in architectural design, horticulture, and urban development. At its most basis, a green roof system transforms a conventional roof into a living roof by adding a waterproof membrane. The membrane is then covered with drainage and filter layers, a growth medium (e.g. soil) and live plant. A green roof can be built on a flat or graded surface, can be thick or thin, and can feature flowering plants. Familiar rooftop garden have plants in pots or planters. A green roof goes further. It is an integral part of a building and one that offers ecological and economic benefits, as well as aesthetic appeal. Roofs covered in living plants were used in ancient Mesopotamia for aesthetic purposes (the famed Hanging Garden of Babilon), in Viking settlements, and on the American Great Plains for basic shelter and insulation (sod houses). The green roof as we know it, however, is a relatively recent creation. The first modern green roof was developed in Germany during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Their man function was to slow water drainage that was straining storm-sewer systems in urban areas where natural vegetation was scare. The idea subsequently spread through Europe and made a few inroads into some American cities. A wide range of environment benefits can result from the adoption of green roof. Preliminary research suggests that living roofs help clean polluted urban air. For example, grass acts as a natural air filter, removing each day 0.2 kilograms of airborne particulates from the air per square meter of grass- covered surface. By converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen through photosynthesis, plants also help limit the build-up of year to meet the annual oxygen requirement of an average human being. Rooftop green space in cities also helps mitigate what scientists call the urban heat island effect. Structure surfaced with conventional building material-paved roads and black rooftops, fox example- absorb-solar radiation and release it into the near surface environment in the form of heat. The effect is to raise the air temperature in a big city by up to 5°C over the temperature in the surrounding countryside. Using mathematical models, a Canadian research team found that if only 5 percent of the roof area of Toronto had green roofs, air temperature would be reduced by 1°C to 2°C Celsius.
  45. Green roofs save money through energy and resource conservation. Studies done in Germany, where an estimated 10 percent of all roofs today are green, suggest that green roofs last two or three times longer than conventional roofs. The long service life of a green roof means that fewer resources and less energy will be expended in roof replacement. Green roofs also save money by lowering the cost of interior heating and cooling One study found that an average building with a green roof requires 25 percent less cooling in commercial facility in Germany with a green roof save enough money in three years through lower heating and cooling costs, since additional cooling tower had become unnecessary. As energy costs increase, the tenants of buildings with green roofs will undoubtedly reap additional savings. A city's livability is as much about the attractiveness of one's surroundings as it is about living costs. The aesthetic benefits of green roofs should not be discounted. Green roofs designed to be parks or gardens can help address a lack of green space in many urban areas. Some are even used for the small-scale, largely recreational production of edible vegetables. All this vegetation naturally attracts songbirds, ducks and other waterfowl, butterflies, and bats. Especially for those whose windows look out over a city's roofs cape- apartment dwellers, office workers, even patients in high-rise hospitals a green roof can provide a priceless connection with nature and the cycle of seasons. On the whole, living roofs add plants into urban landscapes, making cities more environmentally sound and less stressful, and they do so in a cost-effective manner. 1. According to paragraph 1, green roofs. A. are very heavy B. thrive mostly in warm climates C. are composed of several layers of material D. can provide most food a city needs 2. The word "one" in the passage refers to ___. A. a pot or planter B. apart of a building C. an environmental benefit D. a green roof 3. According to paragraph 2, all of the following are true about modern green roofs EXCEPT ___. A. they were initially developed in Germany B. they were designed to slow water drainage C. they were used in Viking settlements D. they are found in a few American cities 4. The word "filter" in the passage is closet in meaning to ___. A. producer B. container C. cooler D. cleaner 5. According to paragraph 3, carbon dioxide is ___. A. an airborne particulate B. an environmental benefit C. something a green roof can help control D. something a green roof can help make 6. The word "mitigate" in the passage is closet in meaning to ___. A intensify B. cause C. prevent D. weaken
  46. 7. According to paragraph 4, temperatures in urban areas tend to be higher than in the surrounding countryside because ___. A. cities are more crowded B. vehicles moving on paved roads create heat C. green roof in rural areas absorb heat D. commonly used building materials retain heat 8. What can be inferred from paragraph 5 about conventional roofs? A. Replacing one is costly B. They are one type of living roof. C. Resources needed to build them are now scare. D. They have a service life of less than ten years. 9. The word "expended" in the passage is closet meaning to ___. A. made large B. used up C. asked for D. found out 10. In paragraph 6, why does the author mention the case of the commercial facility? A. To illustrate the high cost of buying a green roof B. To show that businesses have expenses homeowners don't have C. To give one case in which green roofs produce energy D. To support the claim that green roofs can reduce costs D.WRITING I. Rewrite the following sentences so that the second ones have the same meaning as the given sentence. 1. In the end, I felt I had been right about leaving him, we were just not suitable for each other. I had no regrets ___ ___ ___ 2. "Get the hell out of my house now or I'll call the police!" said the angry widow to the bold intruder. The angry widow threatened ___ ___ ___ 3. I only missed him when he left me for that girl. Not until ___ 4. I had just taken off my dirty clothes to go to bath when someone knocked at the door.
  47. No sooner ___ II. Rewrite the following sentences so that the second ones have the same meaning as the given sentence. 1. Although she was not very good-looking, the prince loved her at the very first sight. Despite ___ 2. "Hey, what's that book you're addicted to these days?" Jane asked Jim. Jane asked Jim ___ 3. You'd better start revising from now on or you won't pass the exam. It's high ___ 4. It was absolutely wrong of you to leave me stranded in that crowded room full of strangers like that. You should ___ PART 3: TEST YOURSELF I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined. 1. A. established B. steadily C. sanitation D. fluctuate 2. A. lasting B. populated C. scale D. migrate 3. A. infrastructure B. capture C. mature D. nature 4. A. slum B. result C. urbanization D. plumber 5. A. illustrate B. identify C. inaccurate D. agricultural II. Choose the word which has a different stress pattern from the others. 1. A. conservative B. progressive C. down-market D. multicultural 2. A. habitual B. obvious C. dramatic D. efficient 3. A. resource B. mindset C. kidnapping D. prospect 4. A. sanitation B. exacerbate C. phonetician D. inhabitant 5. A. initiative B. authority C. discriminate D. necessary III. Choose the correct words in the box to complete the sentences. adverse anticipation congestion outbreaks domestic ineffective 1. Urbanization is happening at such a brisk rate that the government t is planning entire new cities in ___ of large new urban populations.