Bài tập Tiếng Anh Lớp 12: Unit 2: Urbanization - Key

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  1. Unit 2. URBANIZATION - KEY PART 1: VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR REVIEW A. VOCABULARY - industrialization /ɪnˌdʌstriələˈzeɪʃən/ (n.): sự cơng nghiệp hĩa - accelerate /əkˈseləreɪt/ (v): làm gia tăng, tăng tốc - in anticipation of something: để dành cho, để đề phịng, lường trước - urbanization /ˌɜːbənaɪˈzeɪʃən/ (n.): sự đơ thị hĩa - pressurize /ˈpreʃəraɪz/ (v): nén, gây áp lực - result in (v) = bring about, cause: gây ra, dẫn đến - sanitation /ˌsỉnɪˈteɪʃn/ (n.): điều kiện vệ sinh - irrigation /ˌɪrɪˈgeɪʃən (n): sự tưới tiêu - slum /slʌm/ (n): khu nhà ổ chuột - insufficient /ˈɪnsəˈfɪʃənt/ (adj): khơng đủ, thiếu - wastewater /weɪstˌwɔ:tə/ (n): nước bẩn - infrastructure /ˈɪnfrəˌstrʌktʃə/ (n): cơ sở hạ tầng - facilities /fəˈsɪlɪtiz/ (n): phương thức, phương tiện - migrate /maɪˈɡreɪt/ (v): di trú, di cư - immigrate /ˈɪmɪgreɪt/ (v): nhập cư - immigrant /ˈɪmɪgrənt/ (n): dân nhập cư - management capacity /ˈmỉnɪdʒmənt kəˈpỉsɪti/ (n): năng lực quản lý - urbanization process /ɜ:b(ə)naɪˈzeɪʃ(ə)n ˈprəʊsɛs/ (n): quá trình đơ thị hĩa - deeply-rooted /ˈdi:pli- ˈru:tɪd/ (adj): ăn sâu, bám rễ - unemployment /ˌʌnɪmˈplɔɪmənt/ (n): sự thất nghiệp - densely heavily polluted: ơ nhiễm nặng - thinly sparsely polluted: ơ nhiễm nhẹ - long-term /'lɒŋtɜ:m/ (adj): dài hạn - short-term /ʃɔ:t-tɜ:m/ (adj): ngắn hạn - foreign direct investment (FDI) /'fɒrɪn dɪ'rɛkt ɪn'vɛstmənt/ (n): đầu tư trực tiếp nước ngồi - exacerbate /ɛks'ỉsə(:)beɪt (v): làm trầm trọng - relocate /ri:ləʊ'keɪt/ (v): di chuyển tới, xây dựng lại - inflow /'ɪnfləʊ/ (v): chảy vào - adverse /'ỉdvɜ:s/ (adj): tiêu cực - amenity /ə'mi:nəti/ (n): đầy đủ tiện nghi - sustainable development /səs'teɪnəbl dɪ'vɛləpmənt/ (n): phát triển bền vững - instability /ˌɪnstə'bɪlɪti/ (n): tính khơng ổn định, khơng kiên định - housing development /dɪ'vel.əp.mənt/ (n.): sự phát triển nhà ở - fatality or mortality rate /fə'tỉl.ə.ti/; /mɔ: 'tỉl.ə.ti/ (n.): tỷ lệ tử vong Ex: During his tenure, the fatality rate rose up to 150%. - multicultural /ˌmʌlti'kʌltʃərəl/ (adj.): đa văn hĩa. - overpopulated /ˌəʊvə'pɒpjuleɪtɪd/ (adj.): quá đơng dân - population density /'densəti/ (n.): mật độ dân số Ex: The population density of Vietnam is quite high compared to the average. - Confront with something = face, come up against something: đối mặt, chạm trán với cái gì - in hopes of V-ing: trong hi vọng làm gì Ex: The fox tried in hopes of reaching the grapes, but it was all in vain. - take advantage of something /əd'vỉn.t̬ɪdʒ/= make use of something: tận dụng, lấy ưu thế từ cái gì - strain /streɪn/ (n.): gánh nặng, áp lực
  2. B. GRAMMAR REVIEW I. CÂU GIẢ ĐỊNH (Subjunctive) Câu giả định hay cịn gọi là câu cầu khiến là loại câu mà đối tượng thứ nhất muốn đối tượng thứ hai làm một việc gì nhưng khơng mang tính ép buộc như câu mệnh lệnh. Trong câu giả định, người ta dùng dạng nguyên thể khơng cĩ TO của động từ sau một số động từ chính mang tính cầu khiến. THAT phải luơn xuất hiện trong dạng câu này. Subject + Verb (any tense) + that + subject + (should) + verb fin simple form] 1. Những động từ và danh từ thường được theo sau bởi Subjunctive là: advise v. advice n. command v. command n. demand v. demand n. suggest v. suggestion n. prefer v. preference n. recommend v. recommendation n. require requirement n. decree v. decree n. ask v. order v. order n. insist v. insistence n. request v. request n. propose v. proposal n. urge v. urgency n. Ex: His parents insisted that he (should) find a job and settle down in a big city. It is recommended that people (should take regular exercise. She demanded that I should tell her the truth. The recommendation that all people affected by the storm (should) be evacuated immediately was approved. 2. Những tính từ thường được theo sau bởi Subjunctive là: advisable urgent imperative essential necessary obligatory vital fundamental important mandatory crucial desirable It + be (any tense) + adjective + that + subject + verb [in simple form] Ex: It is necessary that everyone be here on time. It is essential that pollution be controlled and eventually eliminated. It is vital that no one else know about the secret government operation. Lưu ý: Nếu bỏ THAT trong cơng thức trên thì: It be adj for somebody to Vinf. • It is necessary that everyone be here on time. → It is necessary for everyone to be here on time. • It is essential that pollution be controlled and eventually eliminated. → It is essential for pollution to be controlled and eventually eliminated. • It is vital that no one else know about the secret government operation. → It is vital for no one else to know about the secret government operation. 3. Dùng với một số trường hợp khác • Câu giả định cịn dùng được trong một số câu cảm thán, thường bao hàm các thế lực siêu nhiên. Ex: God save the queen! (Chúa phù hộ cho nữ hồng.) God be with you! = Good bye (Khi chia tay nhau.) Curse this frog! (Chết tiệt con cĩc này?) • Dùng với một số thành ngữ: - Come what may: Dù cĩ chuyện gì đi nữa. Ex: Come what may we will stand by you. - If need be: Nếu cần Ex: If need be we can take another road. • Dùng với “if this be” trong trường hợp muốn nêu ra một giả định từ phía người nĩi nhưng khơng thật chắc chắn lắm về khả năng.
  3. Ex: If this be prevent right, you would be considered innocent. 4. Câu giả định dung với it is time It is time + (for smb) to do sth: Đã đến lúc ai đĩ phải làm gì (thời gian khơng giả định) Ex: It is time for me to get to the airport (just in time). It is time/ high time/ about time + subject + simple past (Đã đến lúc – giả định thời gian đến trễ một chút) Nhận xét: Hight/ about được dùng trước time để thêm vào ý nhấn mạnh. Ex: It’s high time I left for the airport. = (It is a little bit late). PART 2: PRACTICE A. PHONETICS I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined. 1. A. prestige B. connect C. harvest D. congestion 2. A. housing B. crisis C. cost D. custom 3. A. navigate B. necessitate C. inadequate D. debate 4. A. muzzle B. lizard C. pizza D. puzzle 5. A. bargain B. campaign C. ascertain D. complain II. Choose the word which has a different stress pattern from the others. 1. A. decrease B. facilitate C. fluctuate D. ensure 2. A. propose B. summarize C. centralize D. illustrate 3. A. transformation B. urbanization C. revolution D. population 4. A. agricultural B. unemployed C. sustainable D. economic 5. A. miserable B. infrastructure C. amenity D. necessary B. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR I. Choose the correct words in the box to complete the sentences. metropolis relatively ticking density ranking slums productivity urbanization 1. The ___ density ___ of population is quite high in urban areas. 2. Rich countries, despite having solved all their basic needs, experience a similar accumulation of social pressure as if it was a ___ ticking ___ time bomb. 3. If Nigeria's population continues to grow and people move to cities at the same rate as now, Lagos could become the world's largest ___ metropolis ___, home to 85 or 100 million people. 4. Nearly half of the world's 3.9 billion urban dwellers reside in ___ relatively ___ small settlements with fewer than 500,000 inhabitants. 5. With nearly 38 million people, Tokyo tops UN's ___ ranking ___ of most populous cities followed by Delhi, Shanghai, Mexico City, São Paulo and Mumbai. 6. ___ slums ___ are urban areas that are heavily populated with substandard housing and very poor living conditions. II. Give the correct form of the words in the following sentences. 1. Since the renovation policy launched in 1986, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, has experienced the fastest ___urbanization___ process. URBAN 2. There has been a rapid ___migration___ of rural people to urban areas for jobs and better living. MIGRATE 3. Urbanization promotes foreign direct ___investment___ which in turn helps in improving the foreign exchange reserves of the country. INVEST 4. The support policies for social housing development in Vietnam remained ___ineffective___ as only a few people were lucky enough to be able to get access to preferential loans. EFFECT
  4. 5. Several international organizations want to invest in social ___housing___ development for the youth in Vietnam. HOUSE 6. At the moment, finding solutions for ___sustainable___ urban development is one of Vietnam's current top priorities. SUSTAIN 7. Urban ___dwellers___ must rely on the rural hinterland for agricultural production. DWELL 8. As the world continues to ___urbanize___, sustainable development depends increasingly on the successful management of urban growth. URBAN 9. A city that grows without these structures in place is at high risk for poverty and ___instability___. STABLE 10. The disease is common in developing countries lacking adequate sewage and sanitation ___facilities___. FACILITATE 11. Some people worry that the city has become ___overpopulated___. POPULATE 12. Since the number of people aspiring for jobs is more than jobs available, ___unemployment___ is a natural outcome of situation. EMPLOY III. Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences. 1. Linda insisted that the newly-born baby ___ after her husband's father. A. could be named B. be named C. must be named D. ought to be named 2. It was such a beautiful evening that one of us suggested we ___ the meeting outside. A. could have B. had C. might have D. have 3. I requested that first-year students ___ to change their courses in the first two weeks. A. would be permitted B. be permitted C. were permitted D. are permitted 4. His advisor recommended that he ___ at least three courses each semester A. takes B. can take C. should take D. would take 5. It is important that he ___ to the director of the programme. A. should speak B. speak C. would speak D. speaks 6. It's important that they ___ to take her medicine twice a day. A. remember B. remembering C. to remember D. remembers 7. I suggest that Frank ___ the instructions carefully before playing that game. A. reading B. to read C. read D. reads 8. Mrs. Smith demanded that the heater ___ immediately. Her apartment was freezing. A. repaired B. be repaired C. repair D. to repair 9. It's vital that the United States ___ on improving its public education system. A. focuses B. focus C. focusing D. focused 10. The monk insisted that the tourists ___ the temple until they had removed their shoes. A. not entering B. not to enter C. not enter D. don't enter IV. Choose the correct answer that best completes each of the following sentences. 1. Due to industrialization, many changes were ___ in people's daily lives. A. kept B. got C. maintained D. made 2. Urbanization is happening at such a brisk rate that the government is planning entire new cities in ___ of large new urban populations. A. expectation B. anticipation C. danger D. view 3. The rapid ___ of rural population to urban places give rise to housing problem and thus slums are developed in these places. A. increase B. rushes C. inflows D. poverty 4. The increase in population in urban places ___ water and sanitation facilities, which results ___ environmental pollution and health hazards. A. destroys - from B. breaks - into C. pressurizes - in D. decreases - on 5. Slums are urban areas that are ___ populated with substandard housing and very poor living conditions.
  5. A. thinly B. thickly C. crowdedly D. heavily 6. Unemployment and poverty force people to ___ in anti-social activities. A. include B. engage C. take D. oppose 7. Due to dumping of sewage from factories in water bodies, water pollution often results ___ of epidemics. A. breakout B. outbreaks C. out breakings D. breaking outs 8. Access to education, health, social services and cultural activities is more ___ available to people in cities than in villages. A. readily B. willingly C. extremely D. comparatively 9. The public authority of Ho Chi Minh City is going to be ___ problems of urban planning and management. A. come up with B. addressed with C. contented with D. got into 10. Vietnam is facing numerous challenges caused by rapid urbanization, leaving burdens on its technical and social ___. A. appliance B. facilities C. equipment D. infrastructure 11. Vietnam needs to ___ its urbanization opportunities to become a middle income country. A. get B. seize C. make use D. exploit 12. Drastic measures to boost housing development should be ___ to prevent properly market ___ becoming a boom. A. initiated - from B. launched - for C. complemented - against D. conducted - to 13. The support policies for social housing development in Vietnam remained ineffective as only a few people were lucky enough to get ___ to preferential loans. A. entrance B. method C. access D. approach 14. Although the UK is an urban society, more and more people are choosing to ___ to the countryside. A. distribute B. relocate C. apply D. reach 15. In the absence of adequate medical services, congestion and poor sanitation in big cities may cause health ___. A. danger B. disadvantages C. demerits D. hazards 16. The United Nations estimates that 1.1 billion people have no access to fresh water and 2.4 billion lack access to adequate ___. A. sanitation B. facilities C. equipment D. congestion 17. In order to deal with problems including waste and water treatment and public transportation, developing smart cities will be the ___ such challenges. A. means of coping with B. key to meeting C. approach to obtaining D. remedy for getting into 18. The government of Vietnam has given ___ to developing the digital industry, smart tourism, and agriculture by 2020. A. preference B. priority C. advantage D. discrimination 19. There is a heavy ___ on private transport that has led to the congestion of roads and increasing commuting time and pollution A. base B. independence C. reliance D. lean 20. It is impolite that you ___ there when he gets off the plane. A. be not standing B. been not standing C. not be standing D. not been standing 21. They hope to ___ a cure for the disease. A. catch up on B. come up with C. fill up with D. go out with 22. Although it was more than an hour late, the superstar finally showed up and ___ the attention of the audience, A. grabbed B. held C. paid D. took 23. Don't worry. We're in good time; there's ___ to hurry. A. impossible B. no need C. no purpose D. unnecessary
  6. 24. Overpopulation in urban areas tends to create unfavorable conditions, which may result in ___ of food in developing countries, A. damages B. failures C. shortage D. supplies 25. Urbanization can bring social health and benefit; ___, it also has its drawback. A. by the way B. furthermore C. however D. moreover V. Indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 1. Urbanization brings with it several consequences - both adverse and beneficial. A. negative B. favorable C. advantageous D. preferential 2. The quality of urban water bodies is increasingly exacerbated by a huge volume of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater. A. added B. decreased C. reduced D. aggravated 3. A city that grows too quickly can also experience an array of environmental issues. A. variety B. proportion C. rate D. pace 4. Low-income dwellers are generally living in older areas of modern cities, which are well known for poor sanitation, lack of health facilities and basic amenities. A. aid B. facilities C. resource D. place 5. India is facing a house shortage in urban areas at the moment and more housing would be required in order to meet future demand. A. encounter B. introduce C. fulfill D. stumble 6. A smart sustainable city will meet the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social and environmental aspects. A. in addition to B. according to C. with regard to D. with a view to 7. As cities grew more crowded, and often more impoverished and costly, more and more people began to migrate back out of them. A. well-off B. rich C. penniless D. fertile 8. Urbanization spurs a unique set of issues to both humans and animals. A. stimulates B. prevents C. varies D. descends 9. Automobile exhaust produces elevated lead levels in urban air. A. humble B. lowly C. diminished D. uplifted 10. Urban development can magnify the risk of environmental hazards such as flash flooding. A. understate B. minimize C. exaggerate D. reduce VI. Indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 1. Urbanization has many adverse effects on the structure of society as gigantic concentrations of people compete for limited resources. A. favorable B. disadvantageous C. unlucky D. unpropitious 2. The absence of effective and representative government exacerbates urban environmental health problems. A. aggravate B. heighten C. reduce D. magnify 3. Most of the world's largest cities are considerably smaller by the year 2000 than had been expected. A. substantially B. slightly C. significantly D. greatly 4. Cities are like magnets, with the potential to take care of everything from the most basic needs to the most intangible desires. A. impalpable B. invisible C. indefinable D. clear 5. The proportion between public and private space in such spontaneous urbanization is invariably less than 1:10. A. never B. regularly C. habitually D. dependably 6. Many people move to urban areas seeking for job opportunity as well as stable employment.
  7. A. temporary B. firm C. steady D. substantial 7. His decision had been made on the spur of the moment. A. all of a sudden B. out of the blue C. unexpectedly D. predictably 8. Unregulated, unplanned urban sprawl is often the cheapest option in the short run - but the long-run costs to society, the economy and the environment can be dire. A. positive B. terrible C. dreadful D. distressing 9. The police finally arrested the notorious criminal. A. respectable B. serious C. infamous D. gentle 10. The indiscriminate use of pesticides has wiped out many rare species. A. uncritical B. unplanned C. extensive D. methodical VII. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that needs correction. 1. Government should be used national resources in a more efficient way in order to meet the needs of growing populations. A. be used B. more efficient C. in order to D. needs 2. Because of urbanization continues, not only the infrastructure for health but also other social services in cities need improving. A. Because of B. not only C. but also D. need improving 3. The green belt is also getting real dense due to people moving out of the city too many. A. is B. real C. moving D. many 4. To accommodate the fastly growing population, the government must come up with a solution soon. A. fastly B. must C. with D. soon 5. The concentration of population may help to minimize our environmental impact on the planet and help cities designs policies and practices to prepare for the influx. A. concentration B. on C. designs D. practices VIII. Indicate the correct response to each of the following exchanges. 1. Liz is telling Andrew about her first novel. Liz. "Guess what? My first novel has just been published.” – Andrew. “___” A. It's my pleasure. B. Congratulations! C. Better luck next time! D. It's very kind of you. 2. Mrs. Smith and her students are visiting the zoo. Mike. "Can I feed the gorilla, Mrs. Smith?" – Mrs. Smith. “___. The sign says 'No feeding the animals'.” A. Of course you can B. I don't think it works. C. I'm sure about that. D. I'm afraid not 3. Hung was invited to Hoa's party. He wants to thank her for the lovely party. Hung: "Thank you very much for a lovely party." – Hoa: “___” A. Thanks. B. Have a good day! C. You are welcome. D. Cheers. 4. Tom: "I'm sorry, I won't be able to come". - Mary: “___.” A. Great! B. Oh, that's annoying C. Well, never mind D. Sounds likes fun 5. Tom: "Can you make it at 3 p.m on Friday for our meeting?" - Tony: “___” A. OK, that's fine. B. That's not true. I met him three days ago. C. Very well, thanks. D. You have a point there, but I don't think so. 6. Student: "Could you help me to fax this report?" - Librarian: “___’ A. Sorry I have no idea. B. It's very kind of you to say so. C. What rubbish! I don't think it's helpful. D. Certainly. What's the fax number? 7. John was in Hanoi and wanted to send a parcel to his parents. He asked a local passer-by the way to the post- office. Choose the most suitable response to fill in the blank in the following exchange. - John: "Can you show me the way to the nearest post office, please?" - Passer-by: “___”
  8. A. Not way, sorry. B. Just round the corner over there. C. Look it up in a dictionary! D. There's no traffic near here. 8. Lora has just bought a new skirt that she likes very much. Choose the most suitable response to fill in the blank in the following exchange. - Jane: "You look great in that red skirt, Lora!" - Lora: “___” A. No, I don't think so. B. Oh, you don't like it, do you? C. Thanks I bought it at Macy's. D. Thanks, my mum bought it. C. READING I. Choose the word or phrase from the box that best fits the blank space in the following passage. especially relies which infrastructure transform environmentally CITIES GOING GREEN As more and more people concentrate in cities, planners are looking for ways to (1) ___ transform ___ cities into better living spaces. This can be done by improving existing (2) ___ infrastructure ___ while also creating more public spaces that are both beautiful and green. This can be hard to accomplish, (3) __especially_ in cities with a haphazard fashion. Some cities have been created with the idea of a green city as the goal. One such city, Masdar City in the United Arab Emirates, aims to become a model for other cities to follow. It is being known as a truly green city that (4) ___ relies ___ strictly on renewable sources such as solar energy to provide all of its energy needs. In addition, it will be a zero waste city in (5) ___ which ___ everything that is used can be recycled. Whether it will truly accomplish its goal remains to be seen, but it will also act as an experiment for (6) ___ environmentally ___ -friendly areas to be tested. II. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that best fits the blank space in the following passage. SUSTAINABLE CITIES: A CLEANER FUTURE For the past few decades, there has been an urbanization trend around the world, where more and more people are moving to cities. Since 2009, the UN Habitat (1) ___ that over 3 million people are moving into cities every week. Urban areas have been an attractive destination for migrants in (2) ___ of finding a better job and a higher (3) ___ living. While migrants contribute (4) ___ to the economies of cities, ever-increasing populations raise issues of congestion, (5) ___ of resources, and increased (6) ___ on waste management infrastructure, healthcare, and education. By 2050, it is estimated that 70% of the world's population will live in cities which makes the concept of Sustainable Cities an efficient (7) ___ the growing population. (8) ___, Sustainable Cities have an essential role in the urbanization trend to improve residents lives by (9) ___ environmental initiatives and projects such as limiting CO2 gas emissions in the air, using renewable energy sources, or bringing awareness to environmental issues. With outdoor pollution killing over 3 million lives yearly, (10) ___ in cities, it is evident that urbanization can increase the environmental (11) ___ upon cities. Many cities around the world have redesigned their city planning strategies and commenced initiatives (12) ___ these issues directly. 1. A. estimates B. expects C. claims D. counts 2. A. anticipation B. hopes C. view D. possession 3. A. reason for B. tax of C. standard of D. cost of 4. A. virtually B. practically C. immensely D. annually 5. A. distribution B. collection C. reputation D. solution 6. A garbage B. pressure C. demand D. dependence 7. A. reaction to B. resolution to C. answer to D. approach to 8. A. Therefore B. Moreover C. As regards D. However 9. A. focusing on B. depending on C. developing on D. putting on 10. A. the most B. almost C. equally D. mostly 11. A. affect B. cause C. effect D. drawback
  9. 12. A. to accept B. to assault C. to improve D. to target III. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that best fits the blank space in the following passage. burdens than proportion for enjoy grounds stagnant likely with prospects AN UNCERTAIN URBAN FUTURE Most publications discussing urban change predict that the world will continue to urbanise far into the future. Such projections should be viewed (1) ___ with ___ caution. A steady increase in urbanisation among low income nations is (2) ___ likely ___ to occur only if they also have steadily growing economies. While we should hope that lower income nations achieve more buoyant economies, the current (3) ___ prospects ___ for most of them are hardly encouraging, with political instability, civil war, and large debt (4) ___ burdens ___. There are also (5) ___ grounds ___ for doubting whether a large (6) ___ proportion ___ of the world's population will ever live in very large cities. In (7) ___ stagnant ___ economies, urbanisation levels do not increase much. In successful economies much new investment is going to small or medium sized cities. In regions with advanced transport and communications systems, rural inhabitants and enterprises can (8) __ enjoy ___ standards of infrastructure and services and access to information that historically have been available only in urban areas. Thus, both low and high income nations may have smaller (9) ___than___ expected increases in the populations of their cities, although (10) ___for___ very different reasons. IV. Read the passage, and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for each question. LIVING ROOFTOPS Creative urban planners continually seek new ways to make cities more satisfying places to live. One versatile tool in this pursuit is the "green roof" which draw from fundamental precepts in architectural design, horticulture, and urban development. At its most basis, a green roof system transforms a conventional roof into a living roof by adding a waterproof membrane. The membrane is then covered with drainage and filter layers, a growth medium (e.g. soil) and live plant. A green roof can be built on a flat or graded surface, can be thick or thin, and can feature flowering plants. Familiar rooftop garden have plants in pots or planters. A green roof goes further. It is an integral part of a building and one that offers ecological and economic benefits, as well as aesthetic appeal. Roofs covered in living plants were used in ancient Mesopotamia for aesthetic purposes (the famed Hanging Garden of Babilon), in Viking settlements, and on the American Great Plains for basic shelter and insulation (sod houses). The green roof as we know it, however, is a relatively recent creation. The first modern green roof was developed in Germany during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Their man function was to slow water drainage that was straining storm-sewer systems in urban areas where natural vegetation was scare. The idea subsequently spread through Europe and made a few inroads into some American cities. A wide range of environment benefits can result from the adoption of green roof. Preliminary research suggests that living roofs help clean polluted urban air. For example, grass acts as a natural air filter, removing each day 0.2 kilograms of airborne particulates from the air per square meter of grass-covered surface. By converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen through photosynthesis, plants also help limit the build-up of year to meet the annual oxygen requirement of an average human being. Rooftop green space in cities also helps mitigate what scientists call the urban heat island effect. Structure surfaced with conventional building material-paved roads and black rooftops, fox example- absorb- solar radiation and release it into the near surface environment in the form of heat. The effect is to raise the air temperature in a big city by up to 5°C over the temperature in the surrounding countryside. Using mathematical models, a Canadian research team found that if only 5 percent of the roof area of Toronto had green roofs, air temperature would be reduced by 1°C to 2°C Celsius. Green roofs save money through energy and resource conservation. Studies done in Germany, where an estimated 10 percent of all roofs today are green, suggest that green roofs last two or three times longer than
  10. conventional roofs. The long service life of a green roof means that fewer resources and less energy will be expended in roof replacement. Green roofs also save money by lowering the cost of interior heating and cooling One study found that an average building with a green roof requires 25 percent less cooling in commercial facility in Germany with a green roof save enough money in three years through lower heating and cooling costs, since additional cooling tower had become unnecessary. As energy costs increase, the tenants of buildings with green roofs will undoubtedly reap additional savings. A city's livability is as much about the attractiveness of one's surroundings as it is about living costs. The aesthetic benefits of green roofs should not be discounted. Green roofs designed to be parks or gardens can help address a lack of green space in many urban areas. Some are even used for the small-scale, largely recreational production of edible vegetables. All this vegetation naturally attracts songbirds, ducks and other waterfowl, butterflies, and bats. Especially for those whose windows look out over a city's roofs cape-apartment dwellers, office workers, even patients in high-rise hospitals a green roof can provide a priceless connection with nature and the cycle of seasons. On the whole, living roofs add plants into urban landscapes, making cities more environmentally sound and less stressful, and they do so in a cost-effective manner. 1. According to paragraph 1, green roofs. A. are very heavy B. thrive mostly in warm climates C. are composed of several layers of material D. can provide most food a city needs 2. The word "one" in the passage refers to ___. A. a pot or planter B. apart of a building C. an environmental benefit D. a green roof 3. According to paragraph 2, all of the following are true about modern green roofs EXCEPT ___. A. they were initially developed in Germany B. they were designed to slow water drainage C. they were used in Viking settlements D. they are found in a few American cities 4. The word "filter" in the passage is closet in meaning to ___. A. producer B. container C. cooler D. cleaner 5. According to paragraph 3, carbon dioxide is ___. A. an airborne particulate B. an environmental benefit C. something a green roof can help control D. something a green roof can help make 6. The word "mitigate" in the passage is closet in meaning to ___. A intensify B. cause C. prevent D. weaken 7. According to paragraph 4, temperatures in urban areas tend to be higher than in the surrounding countryside because ___. A. cities are more crowded B. vehicles moving on paved roads create heat C. green roof in rural areas absorb heat D. commonly used building materials retain heat 8. What can be inferred from paragraph 5 about conventional roofs? A. Replacing one is costly B. They are one type of living roof. C. Resources needed to build them are now scare. D. They have a service life of less than ten years. 9. The word "expended" in the passage is closet meaning to ___. A. made large B. used up C. asked for D. found out 10. In paragraph 6, why does the author mention the case of the commercial facility? A. To illustrate the high cost of buying a green roof B. To show that businesses have expenses homeowners don't have C. To give one case in which green roofs produce energy D. To support the claim that green roofs can reduce costs D.WRITING
  11. I. Rewrite the following sentences so that the second ones have the same meaning as the given sentence. 1. In the end, I felt I had been right about leaving him, we were just not suitable for each other. I had no regrets about leaving him, we were just not suitable for each other. 2. "Get the hell out of my house now or I'll call the police!" said the angry widow to the bold intruder. The angry widow threatened to call the police if the bold intruder didn’t get out of her house. 3. I only missed him when he left me for that girl. Not until he had left me for that girl did I miss him. 4. I had just taken off my dirty clothes to go to bath when someone knocked at the door. No sooner had I taken off my dirty clothes to go to bath than someone knocked at the door. II. Rewrite the following sentences so that the second ones have the same meaning as the given sentence. 1. Although she was not very good-looking, the prince loved her at the very first sight. Despite her not being very good-looking/ her not very good-looking appearance, the prince loved her at the very first sight. 2. "Hey, what's that book you're addicted to these days?" Jane asked Jim. Jane asked Jim what the book he was addicted to those days was. 3. You'd better start revising from now on or you won't pass the exam. It's high time you started revising or you won't pass the exam. 4. It was absolutely wrong of you to leave me stranded in that crowded room full of strangers like that. You should not have left me stranded in that crowded room full of strangers like that. PART 3: TEST YOURSELF I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined. 1. A. established B. steadily C. sanitation D. fluctuate 2. A. lasting B. populated C. scale D. migrate 3. A. infrastructure B. capture C. mature D. nature 4. A. slum B. result C. urbanization D. plumber 5. A. illustrate B. identify C. inaccurate D. agricultural II. Choose the word which has a different stress pattern from the others. 1. A. conservative B. progressive C. down-market D. multicultural 2. A. habitual B. obvious C. dramatic D. efficient 3. A. resource B. mindset C. kidnapping D. prospect 4. A. sanitation B. exacerbate C. phonetician D. inhabitant 5. A. initiative B. authority C. discriminate D. necessary III. Choose the correct words in the box to complete the sentences. adverse anticipation congestion outbreaks domestic ineffective 1. Urbanization is happening at such a brisk rate that the government t is planning entire new cities in ___ anticipation ___ of large new urban populations. 2. Due to dumping of sewage from factories in water bodies, water pollution often results in ___ outbreaks ___ of epidemics. 3. The support policies for social housing development in Vietnam remained ___ ineffective ___ as only a few people were lucky enough to be able to get access to preferential loans. 4. There is a heavy reliance on private transport that has led to the ___ congestion ___ of roads and increasing commuting time and pollution. 5. Urbanization has many ___ adverse ___ effects on the structure of society as outbreaks concentrations of people compete for limited resources. 6. The quality of urban water bodies is increasingly worsened by a huge volume of untreated industrial and ___ domestic ___ wastewater. IV. Indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
  12. 1. Rapid urban growth has also brought a huge increase in the number of large cities, including many that have reached sizes that are historically unprecedented. A. remarkable B. extraordinary C. unknown D. original 2. Too much recent emphasis has been given to the fact that the world is becoming predominantly urban. A. mainly B. usually C. principally D. thoroughly 3. In fact, virtually all local governments are located in urban centers. A. effectively B. approximately C. impractically D. almost 4. Distinctions between rural and urban areas are also becoming almost obsolete in and around many major cities as economic activity spreads outwards. A. contemporary B. outdated C. discarded D. up to date 5. People in the city of Porto Alegre in Brazil, famous for its participatory budgeting have a life expectancy of 76 years. A. anticipation B. suspense C. lifespan D. hopefulness 6. Bangalore was renowned for its trees, lakes and pleasant air only 25 years ago. A. proverbial B. notable C. distinguished D. famous V. Indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 1. This restaurant was highly recommended for good service, delicious food and kind-hearted boss. A. ambitious and greedy B. attentive and helpful C. generous and gracious D. polite and friendly 2. Many people move to urban areas seeking for job opportunity as well as stable employment. A. durable B. long-lasting C. steady D. temporary 3. I propose that we wait until the budget has been announced before committing ourselves to any expenditure. A. approve B. recommend C. reject D. suggest 4. Until 1986 most companies would not even allow women to take the exams, but such gender discrimination is now disappearing. A. unfairness B. injustice C. partiality D. equality 5. Without economic security and amid poor living conditions, crime is inevitable. A. assured B. compulsory C. inescapable D. preventable VI. Indicate the correct answer to complete each of the following questions. 1. ___ improve the urban transport situation in India, new metro rail networks have been developed. A. In an effort to B. In addition to C. In terms of D. With the aim to 2. The governments find themselves ___ in attempting to boost the economies and simultaneously reach the sustainable development. A. in danger B. on the tip of their tongues C. on the horns of a dilemma D. on the nerves 3. Urban areas have been an attractive destination for migrants ___ finding a better job and a higher standard of living. A. in hopes of B. in view of C. on grounds of D. with the aim for 4. The foreign investors want to take full ___ of the available facilities that our country offers them. A. use B. measures C. actions D. advantage 5. Strains ___ important natural resources, such as water supply, lead to higher prices and general environmental sustainability problems. A. in B. on C. with D. through 6. The project was very successful and we would like to thank everyone ___. A. concerned B. involving C. specific D. particular 7. It is difficult to quantify the ___ that household waste has on the environment. A. affect B. effort C. impact D. implication
  13. 8. Rapid urbanization has ___ the management capacity of governments in developing countries. A. gone further B. diminished C. got over D. passed through 9. The quality of urban water bodies is increasingly worsened by a huge ___ of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater. A. quantity B. plenty C. number D. volume 10. He asked reporters to provide him with ___ numbers on urban percentages. A. dated B. up-to-minute C. out-of-date D. up-to-date 11. There has been a rapid migration of ___ people to urban areas for jobs and better living. A. out-skirts B. country C. rural D. suburb 12. Since the renovation policy launched in 1986, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, ___ the fastest urbanization process. A. has experienced B. experience C. is experiencing D. has been experienced 13. Slums are urban areas that are ___ populated with substandard housing and very poor living conditions. A. steadily B. heavily C. strongly D. generally 14. Drastic measures to boost housing development ___ to prevent properly market from becoming a boom. A. should initiate B. have initiated C. should be initiated D. initiating 15. Although the UK is an urban society, more and more people are choosing to ___ to the countryside. A. relocate B. illocate C. unlocate D. mislocate 16. A smart sustainable city will meet the needs of present and future generations with respect to ___, social and environmental aspects. A. economy B. economic C. economize D. economizing 17. There are several factors at play that have led to the urbanization in India ___ population growth and migration as one of the 2 major factors. A. led to B. came to C. went to D. stop 18. Anna organized a few games to ___ the ice when the new students first arrived. A. break B. crack C. drill D. melt 19. It is difficult to quantify the ___ that household waste has on the environment. A. affect B. effort C. impact D. implication 20. During the lesson if you have questions or comments, please feel free to ___ them. A. enlarge B. increase C. go up D. raise 21. The level of urban unemployment and numbers of ___ are high. A. joblessness B. the jobless C. the joblessness D. the jobs 22. It is necessary that you ___ able to come with us. A. are B. be C. being D. to be 23. Mary demanded that the heater ___ immediately. Her apartment was freezing. A. repaired B. be repaired C. being repaired D. been repaired 24. The recommendation that she ___ a holiday was carried out. A. has taken B. take C. taken D. taking VII. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that needs correction. 1. Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including urban planning geography, sociology, economize and public health. A. disciplines B. geography C. economize D. public health 2. Urbanization can be seen as a specific condition at a set time or as an increasing in that condition over time. A. specific B. as C. increasing in D. condition 3. Many people move into cities for the economic opportunities, but this does not fully explain the very high recent urbanization rates in places as China and India. A. move into B. opportunities C. very high D. as
  14. 4. Farm living has always been susceptible to unpredictable environment conditions, and in times of drought, flood or pestilence, survival may become extremely problematic. A. susceptible B. environment C. pestilence D. problematic 5. City life, especially in modern urban slums of the developing world, is certain hardly immune to pestilence or climatic disturbances such as floods, yet continues to strongly attract migrants. A. slums of B. certain C. climatic disturbances D. yet VIII. Choose the word or phrase from the box that best fits the blank space in the following passage. catch up with drastically factor to come made expansion grab put up Because of to URBANIZATION IN INDIA Population and economic growth has fostered urbanization in the country and the number of urban towns and cities have (1) ___ drastically ___ increased. This growth is expected to continue in the years (2) ___ to come ___ and India has to step up its game in order to (3) ___ catch up with ___ this kind of change. Investments have to be (4) ___ made ___ in order to better serve the country. There are several factors at play that have led to the urbanization in India - population growth and migration as one of the 2 major factors. Recently, a third (5) ___ factor ___ has been seen as a huge contributor (6) ___to__ the urbanization growth: the (7) __ expansion ___ of towns and cities. This factor is due to the high economic growth that the city has witnessed over the years. (8) ___ Because of ___ this, the government in India has decided to (9) ___ grab ___ the opportunity: projects to further thrust the country into urbanization, a number of smart cities to be (10) ___ put up ___ in various locations, and other initiatives. IX. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that best fits the blank space in the following passage. AN URBANISING WORLD More than two thirds of the world's urban population is now in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Since 1950, the urban population of these regions has grown more than (1) ___. Rapid urban growth has also brought a huge (2) ___ the number of large cities, including many that have (3) ___ sizes that are historically (4) ___. Just two centuries ago, there were only two "million cities" worldwide (that is, cities with one million or more inhabitants) - London and Beijing (Peking). By 1950, there were 80; today there are over 300. Most of these million cities are in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, and (5) ___ have populations that have grown more than tenfold since 1950. Brasilia, the federal capital of Brazil, did not exist in 1950 and now has more than 2 million inhabitants. "Mega-cities," with ten or more million inhabitants are a new (6) ___. The first city to reach this size was New York in around 1940. There were 12 mega-cities by 1990 (the latest year for which there are (7) ___ accurate statistics as data for 2000 (8) ___ are not available or censuses are scheduled for 2001); seven were in Asia, three in Latin America, and two in the United States. In 1800, the average size of the world's 100 largest cities was fewer than 200 000 inhabitants but now it is over 5 million. These (9) ___ give the impression of rapid urbanization that is primarily (10) ___ on large cities. But this is not the case. 1. A. fivefold B. five time C. twices D. doubles 2. A. decrease in B. increase in C. peaking in D. fluctuation in 3. A. reached B. lengthened C. prolonged D. approached 4. A. unsurpassed B. unrivaled C. unmatched D. unprecedented 5. A. the number of B. many C. quite a little D. a great deal of 6. A. event B. ceremony C. phenomenon D. reaction 7. A. roughly B. generally C. reasonably D. relatively 8. A. censuses B. conveys C. investigations D. probation 9. A. documents B. circumstances C. opinions D. statistics 10. A. based B. impacted C. focused D. depend X. Read the passage, and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for each question.
  15. Overpopulation, the situation of having large numbers of people with too resources and too little space, is closely associated with poverty. It can result from high population density, or from low amounts of resources, or from both. Excessively high population densities put stress on available resources. Only a certain number of people can be supported on a given area of land, and that number depends on how much food and other resources the land can provide. In countries where people live primarily by means of simple farming, gardening, herding, hunting and gathering, even large areas of land can support only small numbers of people because these labor-intensive subsistence activities produce only small amounts of food. In developed countries such as the United States, Japan and the countries of Western Europe, overpopulation generally is not considered a major cause of poverty. These countries produce large quantities of food through mechanized farming, which depends on commercial fertilizers, large-scale irrigation and agricultural machinery. This form of production provides enough food to support the high densities of people in metropolitan areas. A country's level of poverty can depend greatly on its mix of population density and agricultural productivity. Bangladesh, for example, has one of the world's highest population densities, with 1,147 persons per sq. km. A large majority of the people of Bangladesh engage in low-productivity manual farming, which contributes to the country's extremely high level of poverty. Some of the smaller countries in Western Europe, such as the Netherlands and Belgium, have high population densities as well. These countries practice mechanized farming and are involved in high-tech industries, however, and therefore have high standards of living. At the other end of the spectrum, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa have population densities of less than 30 persons per sq. km. Many people in these countries practice manual subsistence farming; these countries also have infertile land, and lack the economic resources and technology to boost productivity. As a consequence, these nations are very poor. The United States has both relatively low population density and high agricultural productivity, it is one of the world's wealthiest nations. High birth rates contribute to overpopulation in many developing countries. Children are assets to many poor families because they provide labor, usually for farming. Cultural norms in traditionally rural societies commonly sanction the value of large families. Also, the governments of developing countries often provide little or no support, financial or political, for family planning; even people who wish to keep their families small have difficulty doing so. For all these reasons, developing countries tend to have high rates of population growth. 1. Which of the following is given a definition in paragraph 1? A. Poverty B. Simple farming C. Overpopulation D. Population density 2. What will suffer when there are excessively high population densities? A. Farming methods B. Skilled labor C. Land area D. Available resources 3. The phrase "that number" in paragraph 1 refers to the number of ___. A. densities B. countries C. people D. resources 4. In certain countries, large areas of land can only yield small amounts of food because ___. A. there is an abundance of resources B. there is no shortage of skilled labor C. there is lack of mechanization D. there are small numbers of laborers 5. Bangladesh is a country where the level of poverty depends greatly on ___. A. population density in metropolitan areas B. its population density only C. its high agricultural productivity D. both population density and agricultural productivity 6. The phrase "engage in" in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ___. A. look into B. give up C. escape from D. participate in 7. The word "infertile" in paragraph 4 probably means ___. A. impossible B. unproductive C. inaccessible D. disused
  16. 8. Which of the following is TRUE, according to the passage? A. All small countries in Western Europe have high population densities. B. In certain developed countries, mechanized farming is applied. C. In sub-Saharan African countries, productivity is boosted by technology. D. There is no connection between a country's culture and overpopulation. 9. Which of the following is a contributor to overpopulation in many developing countries? A. High birth rates B. High-tech facilities C. Sufficient financial support D. Economic resources 10. Which of the following could be the best title for the passage? A. Overpopulation: A Worldwide Problem B. High Birth Rate and its Consequences C. Poverty in Developing countries D. Overpopulation: A Cause of Poverty XI. Indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions 1. It isn't very likely that little Johnny will accept her as his step mother. There is little likelihood that little Johnny will accept her as his step mother. 2. It seems rude not to reply to a greeting like that. То not reply to a greeting like that seems rude. 3. Because I had run out of sugar, I went out to get some. I had run out of sugar, so I went out to get some. 4. French is really interesting to learn. It is really interesting to learn French. XII. Indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of the following sentences. 1. While I don't like her mean manners at times, I will still help her out this time. Despite my not liking her mean manners at times, I will still help her out this time. 2. The fan was too weak to clear out the heat pervading through the whole room. The fan was so weak that it could not clear out the heat pervading through the whole room. 3. You'll have to get your car serviced before you go on that long trip to the South. Your car will need servicing before you go on that long trip to the South. 4. I spent the whole evening trying to figure out what he meant in the talk earlier that morning. It took me the whole evening to try to figure out what he meant in the talk earlier that morning. Thầy cơ cần file word bài tập các khối liên hệ zalo 0933455268. Đề luyện thi THPT QG theo form của Bộ cĩ giải chi tiết.